The RAND/PPMD Patient-Centeredness Method

A Novel Online Approach to Engaging Patients and Their Representatives in Guideline Development

Published in: European Journal for Person Centered Healthcare, Volume 7, Issue 3, pages 470-475 (2019). doi: 10.5750/ejpch.v7i3.1750

Posted on RAND.org on November 21, 2019

by Dmitry Khodyakov, Brian Denger, Sean Grant, Kathi Kinnett, Courtney Armstrong, Ann Martin, Holly Peay, Ian D. Coulter, Glen Hazlewood

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Although clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) provide recommendations for how best to treat a typical patient with a given condition, patients and their representatives are not always engaged in CPG development. Despite the agreement that patient participation may improve the quality and utility of CPGs, there is no systematic, scalable method for engaging patients and their representatives, as well as no consensus on what exactly patients and their representatives should be asked to do during CPG development. To address these gaps, an interdisciplinary team of researchers, patient representatives, and clinicians developed the RAND/PPMD Patient-Centeredness Method (RPM)—a novel online approach to engaging patients and their representatives in CPG development. The RPM is an iterative approach that allows patients and their representatives to provide input by (1) generating ideas; (2) rating draft recommendations on two criteria (importance and acceptability); (3) explaining and discussing their ratings with other participants using online, asynchronous, anonymous, moderated discussion boards, and (4) revising their responses if needed. The RPM was designed to be consistent with the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method used by clinicians and researchers to develop CPG, while helping patients and their representative rate outcome importance and recommendation acceptability—two key components of the GRADE Evidence to Decision (EtD) framework. With slight modifications, the RPM has the potential to explore consensus among key stakeholders on other dimensions of the EtD, including feasibility, equity, and resource use.

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