Racial and Ethnic Differences in Outcomes in Older Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke

Published in: Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, Volume 6, Issue 3, pages 284–292 (May 2013). doi: 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.113.000211

Posted on RAND.org on December 16, 2020

by Feng Qian, Gregg C. Fonarow, Eric E. Smith, Ying Xian, Wenqin Pan, Edward L. Hannan, Benjamin A. Shaw, Laurent G. Glance, Eric D. Peterson, Zubin J. Eapen, et al.

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Background

Little is known as to whether long-term outcomes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) vary by race/ethnicity. Using the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Stroke registry linked with Medicare claims data set, we examined whether 30-day and 1-year outcomes differed by race/ethnicity among older patients with AIS.

Methods and Results

We analyzed 200,900 patients with AIS >65 years of age (170,694 non-Hispanic whites, 85.0%; 20,514 non-Hispanic blacks, 10.2%; 6,632 Hispanics, 3.3%; 3,060 non-Hispanic Asian Americans, 1.5%) from 926 US centers participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke program from April 2003 through December 2008. Compared with whites, other racial and ethnic groups were on average younger and had a higher median score on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Whites had higher 30-day unadjusted mortality than other groups (white versus black versus Hispanic versus Asian=15.0% versus 9.9% versus 11.9% versus 11.1%, respectively). Whites also had higher 1-year unadjusted mortality (31.7% versus 28.6% versus 28.1% versus 23.9%, respectively) but lower 1-year unadjusted all-cause rehospitalization (54.7% versus 62.5% versus 60.0% versus 48.6%, respectively). After risk adjustment, Asian American patients with AIS had lower 30-day and 1-year mortality than white, black, and Hispanic patients. Relative to whites, black and Hispanic patients had higher adjusted 1-year all-cause rehospitalization (black: adjusted odds ratio, 1.28 [95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.37]; Hispanic: adjusted odds ratio, 1.22 [95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.35]), whereas Asian patients had lower odds (adjusted odds ratio, 0.83 [95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.94]).

Conclusions

Among older Medicare beneficiaries with AIS, there were significant differences in long-term outcomes by race/ethnicity, even after adjustment for stroke severity, other prognostic variables, and hospital characteristics.

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