Cover: Implementing Safe Areas

Implementing Safe Areas

Lessons from History

Published in: Survival, Volume 60, No. 6, pages 159-180 (December 2018-January 2019). DOI: 10.1080/00396338.2018.1542805

Posted on rand.org Feb 26, 2024

by Astrid Stuth Cevallos, Bryan Frederick

It has been more than seven years since Syria plunged into civil war, and the situation there remains grim. Both government forces and insurgent groups have targeted civilians. President Bashar al-Assad's government has used chemical weapons against them, starved them by placing cities under siege, and detained them in prisons where they have been tortured, neglected and even executed. Insurgent groups, including the Islamic State (ISIS), have also used chemical weapons against Syrian civilians, attacked them with artillery, kidnapped them and executed them. In response, many civilians have fled their homes: the United Nations has registered more than five million Syrian refugees, including 3 m in neighbouring Turkey alone.

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