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This report is one of five volumes providing detailed information on the QA Tools, RAND’s comprehensive, clinically based system for assessing quality of care for children and adults. The QA Tools indicators encompass screening, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in 46 clinical areas and cover a variety of modes of providing care, including history, physical examination, laboratory study, medication, and other interventions and contacts. Development of each indicator was based on the ratings of a panel of experts in the relevant fields and on a focused review of the scientific literature, which is clearly documented for each clinical condition. This volume focuses on indicators for care of children and adolescents. Each chapter summarizes the results of the literature review for a particular condition, provides RAND staff’s recommended indicators based on that review, and lists the cited studies. In addition, this work details the process by which the expert panel evaluated the indicators and the final disposition of each indicator. Clinical conditions covered in this volume are: Acne, preventive services, allergic rhinitis, asthma, attention deficit disorder, cesarean delivery, depression, developmental screening, diabetes mellitus,acute diarrheal disease, family planning/contraception, fever without source of infection in children under 3 years of age, headache, immunizations, otitis media, acute otitis media, prenatal care, sickle cell screening, tuberculosis, upper respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, vaginitis and sexually transmitted diseases, well child care. Other RAND Health titles on the QA Tools system focus on indicators for general medicine, oncology and HIV, cardiopulmonary conditions, and women.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

  • Tables

  • Figures

  • Acknowledgements


  • Introduction

  • Chapter 1


  • Chapter 2

    Adolescent Preventive Services

  • Chapter 3

    Allergic Rhinitis

  • Chapter 4


  • Chapter 5

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

  • Chapter 6

    Cesarean Delivery

  • Chapter 7


  • Chapter 8

    Developmental Screening

  • Chapter 9

    Diabetes Mellitus

  • Chapter 10

    Diarrheal Disease, Acute

  • Chapter 11

    Family Planning/Contraception

  • Chapter 12

    Fever Without Source of Infection in Children Under 3 Years of Age

  • Chapter 13


  • Chapter 14


  • Chapter 15

    Otitis Media

  • Chapter 16

    Prenatal Care

  • Chapter 17

    Sickle Cell Screening and Select Topics in Prevention of Complications

  • Chapter 18

    Tuberculosis Screening

  • Chapter 19

    Upper Respiratory Infections

  • Chapter 20

    Urinary Tract Infections

  • Chapter 21

    Vaginitis and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (Diagnosis and Treatment)

  • Chapter 22

    Well Child Care

  • Appendix A

    Definitions for Indicator Tables

  • Appendix B

    Panel Rating Sheets

  • Appendix C

    Indicator Crosswalk Table

The study was conducted within RAND Health and supported by the Health Care Financing Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation Monograph report series. The monograph/report was a product of the RAND Corporation from 1993 to 2003. RAND monograph/reports presented major research findings that addressed the challenges facing the public and private sectors. They included executive summaries, technical documentation, and synthesis pieces.

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