Transporting the Army for Operation Restore Hope
In Operation Restore Hope (ORH), the Army successfully provided many of the capabilities needed to get food to starving Somalis. This report analyzes Army ORH deployment and makes five observations on how to improve future humanitarian operations. First, the details of planned Army movements varied considerably. DoD should consider adapting planning and operating procedures to place less reliance on detailed plans. Second, humanitarian operations place relatively high demands on support functions (Engineering, Medical, Transportation, Civil Affairs, etc.). The Army may wish to create "ready groups" for such functions. Third, ORH employed six of the nation's best sealift ships, undercutting the Army's ability to carry out its strategic mobility plan. Use of other types of ships should be considered. Fourth, difficulties in offloading prepositioning ships suggest that procedures and plans be reexamined. Finally, the Army needs to develop methods for defining objectives and measuring progress in the performance of humanitarian missions.