An assessment of the progress made by research on teachers' pedagogical thoughts, judgments, and decisions over the past decade and identification of substantive and methodological research needed to improve the practice of teaching. The authors recommend that conceptual and empirical research be directed toward constructing a taxonomy of critical teaching decisions; that research shift from descriptive to training studies bearing on decision strategies and policies for teaching; that teaching research link its recommendations to their practical implementation; that teaching research focus on teachers' thoughts, decisions, and behaviors in studying how students, classroom content, and organizational context influence teachers; that research examine how teachers communicate subject matter, with practical recommendations; and that research examine how teachers balance goals, the scripts they use in planning instruction, and the relation between goals and scripts, with practical recommendations.
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