This paper begins with a discussion of the current and future plans of civilian nuclear development in India and Pakistan. Some civilian nuclear facilities can be used to produce highly-enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, the basic ingredients for making nuclear weapons. In fact, in spite of the two countries' active nuclear weapons programs, they both claim that their nuclear activities are for peaceful purposes. Next, the paper distinguishes the proliferation-resistant activities from those that are proliferation-prone. It then discusses the economics and energy security of alternative nuclear paths. Finally, the paper discusses the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and fissile-Material Production Cutoff. Cooperation with India and Pakistan on civilian nuclear power and technology will be discussed in a subsequent paper.