Higher Education Programs in Prison

What We Know Now and What We Should Focus On Going Forward

by Lois M. Davis

Download Free Electronic Document

FormatFile SizeNotes
PDF file 0.2 MB

Use Adobe Acrobat Reader version 10 or higher for the best experience.

Research Questions

  1. What do we know about the effectiveness of correctional education and recidivism?
  2. What has been the experience of states in implementing in-prison college programs and lessons learned?
  3. What options are available to sustain the long-term funding of these programs?
  4. What should be the focus going forward in this field?

Each year, more than 700,000 incarcerated individuals leave federal and state prisons and return to local communities where they will have to compete with individuals in those communities for jobs. In today's economy, having a college education is necessary to compete for many jobs, and the stakes for ex-offenders are higher than they are for others. There are different perspectives about whether postsecondary programs in prison should lead to academic degrees or industry-recognized credentials. Drawing on past RAND research on correctional education and focusing on the Second Chance Pell Experimental Sites Initiative and the Pathways from Prison to Postsecondary Education initiative in North Carolina, this Perspective summarizes research on the effectiveness of educational programs in helping to reduce recidivism, key lessons learned in providing college programs to incarcerated adults, and remaining issues that need to be addressed, including how to ensure long-term funding of in-prison college programs and the need for an outcomes evaluation to learn from the Experimental Initiative.

Key Findings

Providing access to college education for incarcerated adults can help reduce the nation's substantial recidivism rates

  • For successful reentry, the educational and skills deficits of incarcerated individuals need to be addressed.
  • Correctional education and postsecondary programs are effective in reducing recidivism.
  • Correctional education is also cost-effective.
  • There are a number of challenges to implementing prison education programs.
  • Restoring access to Pell Grants will help address some, but not all, of the funding support needed for in-prison college programs.

Recommendations

  • Besides restoring Pell Grant eligibility, other options should be considered for ensuring long-term funding of in-prison college programs.
  • An outcomes evaluation of in-prison college programs and the Pell Experimental Initiative is needed to inform how best to provide these programs.

Research conducted by

This project is a RAND Venture. Funding was provided by gifts from RAND supporters and income from operations. This research was conducted by the Justice Policy Program within RAND Social and Economic Well-Being.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation perspective series. RAND perspectives present informed perspective on a timely topic that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors. All RAND perspectives undergo rigorous peer review to ensure high standards for research quality and objectivity.

Permission is given to duplicate this electronic document for personal use only, as long as it is unaltered and complete. Copies may not be duplicated for commercial purposes. Unauthorized posting of RAND PDFs to a non-RAND Web site is prohibited. RAND PDFs are protected under copyright law. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit the RAND Permissions page.

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.