Examines the impact of training programs and other factors on the earnings and employment of low-income residents of Chicago. Using regression models and data drawn from the 1969 Urban Employment Survey, the following major conclusions are reached: (1) Participation in training or vocational programs has not raised the trainees' incomes above those of the nonparticipants, nor has such participation had a significant effect upon duration of employment. However, the programs did appear to facilitate entry into the labor force. (2) Income and employment are highly correlated with the level of education. (3) The earnings of blacks and women are substantially lower than those of white males after controlling for level of educational attainment, occupation, and industry of employment. Recommendations are: The structure and success over time of different training programs must be studied further; the retentive powers of various school programs need to be examined; and all methods of eliminating racial discrimination have to be explored. 48 pp. Ref.