Download eBook for Free

FormatFile SizeNotes
PDF file 8.2 MB

Use Adobe Acrobat Reader version 10 or higher for the best experience.


Purchase Print Copy

 Format Price
Add to Cart Paperback186 pages $30.00

Analysis of interviews with 49 prison inmates — armed robbers serving at least their second prison term. The interviews probed patterns of criminality; criminal sophistication; treatment by criminal justice agencies; and drug and alcohol involvement. On the average, these offenders committed 20 felonies per year of street time and were arrested for only about 9 percent of them. The seriousness and frequency of their crimes declined during their careers. Surprisingly, the sample did not develop much criminal sophistication over time. Two types of habitual offenders emerged. The "intensives," about one-third of the sample, were more criminally active and more skillful at avoiding arrest than the "intermittents": intensives committed 10 times as many crimes as intermittents but were 5 times less likely to be arrested for any single crime. Though the sample is too small to permit generalizations, results suggest the importance of identifying intensives among habitual offenders and identifying them early in their careers.

This report is part of the RAND report series. The report was a product of RAND from 1948 to 1993 that represented the principal publication documenting and transmitting RAND's major research findings and final research.

This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by law. This representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of this publication online is prohibited; linking directly to this product page is encouraged. Permission is required from RAND to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of its research documents for commercial purposes. For information on reprint and reuse permissions, please visit

RAND is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.