Cover: Integrating Academic and Vocational Education

Integrating Academic and Vocational Education

Lessons from Eight Early Innovators

Published 1993

by Susan J. Bodilly, Kimberly Ramsey, Cathy Stasz, Rick Eden


Download eBook for Free

FormatFile SizeNotes
PDF file 6.5 MB

Use Adobe Acrobat Reader version 10 or higher for the best experience.


Purchase Print Copy

 Format Price
Add to Cart Paperback97 pages $30.00

Integration of academic and vocational education at the high school level was mandated by the 1990 Amendments to the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act. This report examines the experiences of eight schools that implemented integration efforts prior to the federal mandate. The schools improved curriculum, pedagogy, teacher collaboration, and school transition practices using one of three different approaches: enhanced academics, enhanced relevance, or enhanced engagement. All schools reported major barriers to curricular and pedagogical reforms, especially state and district level regulations and school level customs and practices. Two keys to integration reform were: (1) make integration the central focus of a school improvement plan; and (2) allocate resources to curriculum development and opportunities for teacher collaboration.

This report is part of the RAND report series. The report was a product of RAND from 1948 to 1993 that represented the principal publication documenting and transmitting RAND's major research findings and final research.

This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by law. This representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of this publication online is prohibited; linking directly to this product page is encouraged. Permission is required from RAND to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of its research documents for commercial purposes. For information on reprint and reuse permissions, please visit

RAND is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.