Cover: Stepping Through the Drug Use Sequence

Stepping Through the Drug Use Sequence

Longitudinal Scalogram Analysis of Initiation and Regular Use

Published 2004

by Phyllis L. Ellickson, Ron D. Hays, Robert M. Bell

Using a new technique for tracing the sequence of use over time, this study examined the pattern of drug involvement among 4,145 West Coast adolescents over the 4-year span from grades 7-10. During the period covered, the mid- to late 1980s, the authors found no evidence that cocaine has become a gateway drug. However, the data provided some support for treating cocaine initiation as a separate stage that precedes the onset of hard drugs other than pills. The analysis also showed that increased involvement with legal drugs constitutes an important step in the transition to hard drug use for most adolescents. Weekly alcohol use followed marijuana use and preceded use of all other illicit drugs for Hispanic, White, and Black youth. However, it followed use of hard drugs for Asians. Weekly smoking formed a distinct stage between initial use of pills and other hard drugs for non-Hispanic Whites. The results underscore the importance of prevention efforts aimed at curbing the transition to regular use of alcohol and cigarettes, as well as their initial use.

Originally published in: Journal of Abnormal Psychology, v. 101, no. 3, 1992, pp. 441-451.

This report is part of the RAND reprint series. The Reprint was a product of RAND from 1992 to 2011 that represented previously published journal articles, book chapters, and reports with the permission of the publisher. RAND reprints were formally reviewed in accordance with the publisher's editorial policy and compliant with RAND's rigorous quality assurance standards for quality and objectivity. For select current RAND journal articles, see External Publications.

This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by law. This representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of this publication online is prohibited; linking directly to this product page is encouraged. Permission is required from RAND to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of its research documents for commercial purposes. For information on reprint and reuse permissions, please visit

RAND is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.