This report describes the detailed algorithms contained within the tanKer Air Refueling Model for Analysis (KARMA) and explains how to use the model. KARMA was developed as part of a RAND Project AIR FORCE project to evaluate the capability of the Mobility Air Forces to support combat operations in an anti-access/area denial environment in the 2030 time frame. KARMA enables an analyst to simulate the extent to which a tanker force can aerially refuel combat aircraft in a denied environment. It also assesses the impact that missile attacks have on the sustainment of combat sorties. In this application, the authors used the U.S. Air Force Synthetic Theater Operations Research Model to generate an air tasking order for the combat aircraft in a scenario as an input to KARMA. The authors also created KARMA to be compatible with the RAND Combat Operations in Denied Environments (CODE) family of models and used CODE outputs to provide expected levels of air base damage given specific ballistic and cruise missile attacks. KARMA is a flexible, fast-running model, allowing users to explore a variety of scenarios, basing structures, concepts of operations, enemy attack patterns, and tanker aircraft capabilities.
Goldfeld, Dahlia Anne and Richard Mason, The tanKer Aerial Refueling Model for Analysis (KARMA). Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2019. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR2682.html. Also available in print form.
Goldfeld, Dahlia Anne and Richard Mason, The tanKer Aerial Refueling Model for Analysis (KARMA), RAND Corporation, RR-2682-AF, 2019. As of February 15, 2024: https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR2682.html