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Appendix 1

Comparison of diaspora and receiving country: Sex, Age, Education and Labour

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Appendix 2

Diaspora characteristics - level and exposure by receiving countries

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Appendix 3

Diaspora characteristics - gender, age and education by receiving countries

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Appendix 4

Diaspora characteristics - labour force indicators by sending countries

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Appendix 5

Comparison of diaspora and sending country: Sex, Age and Education

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Appendix 6

Diaspora characteristics - level and exposure by sending countries

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Appendix 7

Diaspora characteristics - gender, age and education by sending countries

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Appendix 8

Diaspora characteristics - labour force indicators by sending countries

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Appendix 9

Regional analysis - France

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Appendix 10

Regional analysis - Germany

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Appendix 11

Regional analysis - Italy

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Appendix 12

Regional analysis - Spain

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Appendix 13

Regional analysis – UK (England and Wales)

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Appendix 14

Regional analysis – United States

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The European Commission commissioned RAND Europe and the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) to conduct a study mapping diasporas in the European Union and the United States. This study aimed to provide an overview of diasporas present in Europe and the US, and to deliver concrete recommendations for engaging with diasporas as a bridge to their countries of origin, especially where improvement is sought in relations with those countries. Our analysis revealed several noteworthy patterns which may help policymakers better understand the characteristics, priorities and concerns of relevant diasporas. In comparison with their countries of origin, diaspora groups on the whole achieve better outcomes on a range of socioeconomic indicators. Diaspora groups generally show higher rates of high educational attainment, labour force participation in their receiving countries, and, unsurprisingly, tend to have a higher share of working-age population compared with their counterparts in countries of origin. The comparison with receiving countries offers a more complex picture. Diaspora groups have a higher share of working-age population than the populations in the countries where they settled, but are generally lagging behind with respect to labour force and education outcomes. The size of this gap is much larger for labour force participation rates than for educational outcomes. Through synthesis of our quantitative mapping and analysis of engagement strategies and diaspora survey results, we provided a set of eight recommendations for actors seeking to engage with diaspora groups.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One

    Introduction

  • Part I

    Mapping diasporas

    • Chapter Two

      Methodology for Part I

    • Chapter Three

      Findings on diaspora mapping

  • Part II

    Engaging diasporas

    • Chapter Four

      Overview and methodology for Part II

    • Chapter Five

      Receiving country engagement strategies

    • Chapter Six

      Selected sending country engagement strategies

    • Seven

      A review of common recommendations and cautions put forward for diaspora engagement

    • Eight

      Survey and interview results and analysis

  • Part III

    Synthesis

    • Nine

      Recommendations for diaspora engagement

    • Ten

      Concluding Remarks

  • Appendix A

    Overviews of diaspora engagement approaches by selected country of origin

  • Appendix B

    Survey crosstabulations

  • Appendix C

    Further information on data sources on diaspora groups

  • Appendix D

    Literature review methodology

  • Appendix E

    Data extraction template for Stage 1 literature review

  • Appendix F

    Data extraction templates for Stage 2 desk research

  • Appendix G

    Survey methodology details

  • Appendix H

    Survey Questionnaires

  • Appendix I

    Further data on bilateral remittances

Research conducted by

This study has been funded by the European Commission's Directorate General for Home Affairs (DG Home). The research was undertaken by RAND Europe in partnership with the Institute for the Study of Labor.

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