Cover: Assessment of Joint All Domain Command and Control Requirements and the Use of Live, Virtual, and Constructive Capabilities for Training

Assessment of Joint All Domain Command and Control Requirements and the Use of Live, Virtual, and Constructive Capabilities for Training

Published Mar 2, 2023

by Timothy Marler, Carra S. Sims, Mark Toukan, Ajay K. Kochhar, Shawn Cochran, Christine Kistler LaCoste, Matt Strawn


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Research Questions

  1. What are the primary training needs with respect to anticipated requirements for JADC2 across AOCs?
  2. What are the processes and curricula for continuation training at AOCs?
  3. Which LVC capabilities that are available or under development could help support training related to JADC2?

As the anticipated character of warfare changes, new operational concepts emerge in response to new needs, and training must also adapt to support these concepts and ensure readiness. Given the speed at which concepts develop and the length of time it may take to adapt training after the fact, it is prudent to assess training capabilities and practices as concepts mature rather than after concepts have been fully operationalized.

Joint All Domain Command and Control (JADC2) is emerging as the preeminent operational concept in the U.S. Department of Defense. It is intended to improve situational awareness, improve abilities to direct forces across domains and services, and facilitate rapid decisionmaking. Distributed sensors, shooters, and data from all domains are connected to joint forces, enabling coordinated exercise of authority to integrate planning and synchronize convergence in time, space, and purpose. However, JADC2 is under development by all the services as well as the Joint Staff, and therefore, plans for its execution are not yet mature. It is a complex and networked concept, and training to support this concept will require preemptive consideration of supporting capabilities, especially when considering continuation training for personnel at air operation centers (AOCs).

Live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) simulations can help support the complex training that JADC2 will require, but proper development and deployment will require aligning training processes, LVC capabilities, and JADC2 training needs. Drawing from documentation review and interviews with subject-matter experts, the authors develop a road map to leverage LVC in support of JADC2 training.

Key Findings

  • The intent of the JADC2 concept and supporting capabilities risks being unclear across echelons.
  • Balancing centralized coordination with decentralized needs will be critical to effective training development.
  • As JADC2 develops, it is essential to consider adaptations of the training process to support it.
  • Initial qualification training (IQT) is a useful lever to build necessary JADC2 expertise and will continue to provide a mechanism for centralized coordination.
  • AOC personnel tend to support training exercises but are less frequently involved as the targeted training audience.
  • LVC can potentially support training for JADC2, and centralized LVC resources may be key to executing the complex needs of future training.
  • Given the operational and technical complexity of JADC2, as well as its inherently joint nature, there is a risk of siloed development.
  • There are a variety of ways in which LVC can support training for JADC2.


  • The JADC2 cross-functional team (CFT) should take the lead in distributing JADC2 goals, plans, and capabilities.
  • In collaboration with AF/A3T, the 505th Combat Training Group should leverage IQT as a mechanism for centralized coordination of command and control (C2) training across AOCs.
  • With oversight from AF/A3T, AOCs should focus on continuation training (CT) that involves the complete AOC staff and not just individual sections or units.
  • The 505th Combat Training Group, as part of IQT, and each AOC, as part of CT, should incorporate scenarios that test cultural norms into training curricula.
  • AF/A3T should leverage LVC for AOC C2 training during distributed training exercises.
  • With AF/A3T oversight, all aspects of training (IQT, mission qualification training, and CT) should involve increased time reviewing tactical and operational C2 levels of other domains' tasking process and capabilities.
  • The JADC2 CFT and Joint Staff J7 should leverage existing and developing distributed training systems for JADC2 and ensure the Advanced Battle Management System integrates with LVC training capabilities.
  • AF/A3T should share the proposed information technology context map with training communities.
  • AF/A3T should guide increased use of LVC, per the proposed outline, including potential value to the air tasking order process, AOC structure, distributed training exercises, and distributed training architectures.
  • With oversight from AF/A3T, a centralized organization should focus on integrating LVC capabilities consistently during large training exercises.
  • AF/A3T should work with combatant commands, combat support agencies, other services, and major commands to enhance AOC training with space and cyber effects in support of multidomain training.

Research conducted by

The research reported here was commissioned by Department of the Air Force, AF/A3T, and conducted within the Workforce, Development, and Health Program of RAND Project AIR FORCE.

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