Jun 14, 2022
In this report, the authors present findings addressing the potential use of live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) simulation capabilities for continuation training at air operation centers in the U.S. Air Force, in support of Joint All Domain Command and Control (JADC2). Training to support JADC2 requires preemptive consideration of supporting capabilities that align with training needs. LVC capabilities can help support this complex training.
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As the anticipated character of warfare changes, new operational concepts emerge in response to new needs, and training must also adapt to support these concepts and ensure readiness. Given the speed at which concepts develop and the length of time it may take to adapt training after the fact, it is prudent to assess training capabilities and practices as concepts mature rather than after concepts have been fully operationalized.
Joint All Domain Command and Control (JADC2) is emerging as the preeminent operational concept in the U.S. Department of Defense. It is intended to improve situational awareness, improve abilities to direct forces across domains and services, and facilitate rapid decisionmaking. Distributed sensors, shooters, and data from all domains are connected to joint forces, enabling coordinated exercise of authority to integrate planning and synchronize convergence in time, space, and purpose. However, JADC2 is under development by all the services as well as the Joint Staff, and therefore, plans for its execution are not yet mature. It is a complex and networked concept, and training to support this concept will require preemptive consideration of supporting capabilities, especially when considering continuation training for personnel at air operation centers (AOCs).
Live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) simulations can help support the complex training that JADC2 will require, but proper development and deployment will require aligning training processes, LVC capabilities, and JADC2 training needs. Drawing from documentation review and interviews with subject-matter experts, the authors develop a road map to leverage LVC in support of JADC2 training.
Assessing Training Needs
AOC Training Processes
Capabilities to Support JADC2 Training: State of the Art
AOC-Specific Analysis and Assessment of LVC for Supporting JADC2 Training
Discussion, Findings, and Recommendations
Instructional Programs for C2 Officers
Main Stakeholders for JADC2
How the Training Requirements Process and Task Lists Can Inform Training Objectives
Air Operation Centers
ATO Stages, Basic Work Functions, and Approvals
LVC State-of-the-Art Technologies