This report is based upon, and summarizes findings from, eight health research evaluation frameworks in use in the United Kingdom (UK), Sweden, the United States (2), the Netherlands, Australia, the European Union, Canada, and elsewhere. The report was jointly supported by the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences (CAHS) and the International Observatory on Health Research Systems. The Observatory is funded by the Health Research and Development Policy Research Unit of the UK Department of Health. The CAHS has convened an Assessment Panel to consider what research evaluation framework would be most appropriate in a Canadian context and to look at what modifications might be needed to such a framework to adapt it for the Canadian context. The objective of the present study is to inform the work of the panel by providing an overview and comparison of international research evaluation frameworks. The report is divided into two parts. In the first part, five key elements of research evaluation (emerging from the frameworks studied) are presented and discussed: evaluation objectives, outcome measures, levels of aggregation, timing, and evaluation methods. In addition, correlation diagrammes are used to explore the relation between these elements. The second part presents case studies on the eight evaluation frameworks studied.