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This report assess the expected health, economic, social and environmental impacts of five policy options that the European Commission (DG SANCO) is considering for achieving smoke-free environments in the European Union (EU-27).

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One


  • Chapter Two

    Report structure and methodology

  • Chapter Three

    ETS prevalence in the EU-27

  • Chapter Four

    ETS health burden

  • Chapter Five

    ETS financial burden

  • Chapter Six

    ETS and inequalities

  • Chapter Seven

    Smoke-free regulations in EU Member States

  • Chapter Eight

    The effects of smoking bans

  • Chapter Nine

    Technological strategies for controlling secondhand smoke

  • Chapter Ten

    Cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions

  • Chapter Eleven


  • Chapter Twelve

    Description of policy options

  • Chapter Thirteen

    Quantitative analysis

  • Chapter Fourteen

    Analysis of impacts and comparison of policy options

  • Appendix A

    Literature review

  • Appendix B

    ETS prevalence

  • Appendix C

    Relative risks

  • Appendix D

    Effects of smoking bans

  • Appendix E

    Technological strategies for controlling secondhand smoke

  • Appendix F

    Cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation

  • Appendix G

    Stakeholder consultation on smoke-free environments

Research conducted by

The research described in this report was prepared for the European Commission and was conducted by RAND Europe.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation Technical report series. RAND technical reports may include research findings on a specific topic that is limited in scope or intended for a narrow audience; present discussions of the methodology employed in research; provide literature reviews, survey instruments, modeling exercises, guidelines for practitioners and research professionals, and supporting documentation; or deliver preliminary findings. All RAND reports undergo rigorous peer review to ensure that they meet high standards for research quality and objectivity.

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