Standards-based accountability (SBA) under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 relies in large part on a complex set of technical definitions and measures of school and district progress at bringing all students to proficiency in language arts, mathematics, and science by 2014. The law requires states, districts, and schools to achieve Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) objectives for all students and student subgroups, and imposes a set of consequences for those failing to meet these targets. Drawing on RAND's Implementing Standards-Based Accountability (ISBA) project, this paper presents preliminary data on the interpretation and implementation of these accountability elements-AYP and the early sanctions of school choice and supplemental educational services-at the state, district, and school levels in three states.
This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation and conducted within RAND Education.
This report is part of the RAND Corporation working paper series. RAND working papers are intended to share researchers' latest findings and to solicit informal peer review. They have been approved for circulation by RAND but may not have been formally edited or peer reviewed.
Permission is given to duplicate this electronic document for personal use only, as long as it is unaltered and complete. Copies may not be duplicated for commercial purposes. Unauthorized posting of RAND PDFs to a non-RAND Web site is prohibited. RAND PDFs are protected under copyright law. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit the RAND Permissions page.
The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.