This paper meta-analyzes enrollment, attendance and dropout effect estimates from forty two references of conditional cash transfer program evaluations in fifteen developing countries. Average effect sizes for all outcomes in primary and secondary schooling are statistically different from zero. Average effect sizes for secondary enrollment, attendance and dropout are larger than those for primary. For all outcomes and schooling levels, there is considerable heterogeneity in effect sizes. Programs with more generous transfers have larger primary and secondary enrollment effects. Programs that condition benefit receipt on achievement and pay transfers less frequently than monthly, exhibit larger enrollment and attendance effects. Effect sizes are no different in programs with random assignment. It finds evidence in support of publication bias and selective reporting.
This paper series is made possible by the RAND Center for the Study of Aging and the RAND Population Research Center.
This report is part of the RAND Corporation working paper series. RAND working papers are intended to share researchers' latest findings and to solicit informal peer review. They have been approved for circulation by RAND but may not have been formally edited or peer reviewed.
Permission is given to duplicate this electronic document for personal use only, as long as it is unaltered and complete. Copies may not be duplicated for commercial purposes. Unauthorized posting of RAND PDFs to a non-RAND Web site is prohibited. RAND PDFs are protected under copyright law. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit the RAND Permissions page.
The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.