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As frontier artificial intelligence (AI) models become more capable, protecting them from malicious actors will become more important. If AI systems rapidly become more capable over the next few years, achieving sufficient security will require investments — starting today — well beyond what the default trajectory appears to be. This working paper suggests steps that can be taken now to avoid future problems.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One

    Overview of the Interim and Full Reports

  • Chapter Two

    Context and Motivation

  • Chapter Three

    Top Recommendations

  • Chapter Four

    Attack Vectors — Highlights

  • Chapter Five

    Risk Estimates for Attack Vectors — Highlights

  • Chapter Six

    Security Levels — Highlights

Funding for this research was provided by gifts from RAND supporters. The research was conducted by the Acquisition and Technology Policy Program within the RAND National Security Research Division.

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