In this report, the authors address how the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services might improve the methodology used in practice expense (PE) rate-setting, update data that inform PE rates, or both.
Nov 1, 2021
Toolkit for Weighting and Analysis of Nonequivalent Groups: A Tutorial on the TWANG Shiny Application for Time-Varying Treatments
This tutorial demonstrates the use of the Toolkit for Weighting and Analysis of Nonequivalent Groups Shiny application for time-varying treatments -- for cases when the time-varying treatment or exposure is binary -- using an illustrative example.
May 14, 2021
In this report, the authors address how the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services can improve the methodology or update data used for setting practice expense payment rates under the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule.
Aug 4, 2020
Toolkit for Weighting and Analysis of Nonequivalent Groups: A Tutorial on the TWANG Shiny App for Two Treatments
This tutorial describes how to use a menu-driven Shiny app based on the Toolkit for Weighting and Analysis of Nonequivalent Groups (TWANG) R package. It can be used to estimate propensity score weights and treatment effects for binary treatments.
Jun 30, 2020
State-of-the-Art Strategies for Addressing Selection Bias When Comparing Two or More Treatment Groups
This course introduces causal modeling using the potential outcomes framework and propensity score weights to estimate causal effects from observational data.
May 1, 2020
Early indications suggest that value-based incentives are leading to changes; however, incentives remain small, potentially limiting their effectiveness in driving the significant changes needed to derive large improvements in performance.
Feb 5, 2019
This chartbook summarizes findings from an evaluation of two programs offered by the DoD that provide solution-focused counseling for common personal and family issues to members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. military and their families.
Apr 27, 2018
This report proposes alternative methodologies for determining the practice expense (PE) component of the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule in order to avoid misvalued payment rates. A main concern is the allocation of indirect practice costs.
Apr 11, 2018
This toolkit contains information and activities that can bring together those involved in aging-in-place support and those involved in disaster resilience efforts to improve the resilience of older adults to natural and human-caused disasters.
Jan 23, 2018
A recent evaluation of the military's non-medical counseling programs suggests that they help military personnel and their families. Participants gave the programs favorable ratings, and most reported improvement over a three-month period.
Jan 16, 2018
This discussion highlights potentially meaningful ways to optimize propensity score machine learning methods to allow for minimal bias and less variability.
Dec 28, 2017
Addressing Geographic Confounding Through Spatial Propensity Scores: A Study of Racial Disparities in Diabetes
A spatial "doubly robust" estimator can minimize geographically related risk difference among racial/ethnic groups in health disparities studies.
Dec 14, 2017
What Role Does Efficiency Play in Understanding the Relationship Between Cost and Quality in Physician Organizations?
We observed differences among physician organizations (POs) in the efficiency with which they produce quality. The sources of inefficiency should be identified and these areas targeted for improvement.
Dec 7, 2017
This report evaluates two programs offered by the U.S. Department of Defense that provide solution-focused counseling for common personal and family issues to members of the active and reserve components of the U.S. military and their families.
Oct 23, 2017
RAND's evaluation of Military and Family Life Counseling and Military OneSource, based on participant surveys, suggests that these programs are largely effective for service members and families who have used these services.
Oct 23, 2017
Knowing More, But Accomplishing What? Developing Approaches to Measure the Effects of Information-Sharing on Criminal Justice Outcomes
In this report, researchers explore measurement methods to assess how information-sharing affects criminal justice outcomes and offer lessons for future policy evaluation and information system design.
Sep 15, 2017
This tutorial describes the use of the TWANG package in R to estimate inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTWs) when one has time varying treatments or sequences of treatments over time.
Sep 14, 2017
Men who are the primary caregivers of youth in the child welfare system tend to be more similar than different from their female counterparts.
Sep 21, 2016
Offering teledermatology appeared to improve access to dermatology care among Medicaid enrollees and played an especially important role for the newly enrolled.
May 19, 2016
Examines the Air Force's basing decisionmaking process and assesses the quality of the underlying data.
Apr 15, 2016
Anesthesia and operating room (OR) times can be used to estimate surgical time, thereby improving the payment for surgical procedures in the Medicare fee schedule.
Mar 18, 2016
The Influence of Training, Reluctance, Efficacy, and Stigma on Suicide Intervention Behavior Among NCOs in the Army and Marine Corps
We used structural equation modeling on survey responses from 1184 Army soldiers and 796 marines to estimate the relationships between training, intervention efficacy, reluctance, and mental health stigma on NCO intervention behaviors.
Mar 2, 2016
In this study we investigated the longitudinal effects of primary caregiving fathers' mental health and substance use on child mental health, and examined possible differences by child age and gender.
Feb 29, 2016
Radiologists' Perceptions of Computerized Decision Support: A Focus Group Study from the Medicare Imaging Demonstration Project
The purpose of this study was to discern radiologists' perceptions regarding the implementation of a decision support system intervention as part of the Medicare Imaging Demonstration project.
Nov 6, 2015
Noncommissioned Officers' Perspectives on Identifying, Caring For, and Referring Soldiers and Marines at Risk of Suicide
Noncommissioned officers (NCOs) in the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps were surveyed to identify their ability and willingness to identify, intervene on behalf of, and refer fellow soldiers and marines at risk of suicide.
Jul 17, 2015
Many experts believe that the U.S. health care system's continued dependence on fee-for-service payments is a key driver of excessive health care spending.
Jul 16, 2015
Appropriateness of Advanced Diagnostic Imaging Ordering Before and After Implementation of Clinical Decision Support Systems
Computerized clinical decision support (CDS) systems that match patient characteristics against appropriateness criteria to produce algorithmic treatment recommendations are a potential means of improving care.
Jul 13, 2015
The authors develop a spatiotemporal quantile regression model for the analysis of emergency department-related medical expenditures.
Mar 24, 2015
This tutorial explains the syntax and features related to the implementation of the MNPS function in the SAS TWANG macros.
Mar 13, 2015
This tutorial describes the use of the TWANG package in R to estimate propensity score weights when there are two treatment groups, and how to use TWANG to estimate nonresponse weights.
Feb 6, 2015
Development of a Model for the Validation of Work Relative Value Units for the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) uses the resource-based relative value scale to pay physicians and other practitioners for services. CMS asked RAND to develop a model to validate physician work values using external data sources.
Jan 16, 2015
The current process used by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services for valuing physician work is based on physician survey responses. RAND researchers examined the feasibility of developing a model based instead on external data sources.
Jan 16, 2015
Promoting Airmen with the Potential to Lead: A Study of the Air Force Master Sergeant Promotion System
Despite an evolving operational environment, the system for promoting airmen into the rank of master sergeant has not changed since it was developed more than 40 years ago. RAND researchers assessed the system and explored areas for improvement.
Nov 14, 2014
RAND researchers tested whether exposing ordering clinicians to appropriateness guidelines for advanced imaging procedures would reduce or eliminate inappropriate orders. The study identified many opportunities to refine decision support systems.
Nov 10, 2014
The Toolkit for Weighting and Analysis of Nonequivalent Groups, or TWANG, contains a set of functions to support causal modeling of observational data through the estimation and evaluation of propensity score weights.
Apr 18, 2014
Estimating the Causal Effects of Cumulative Treatment Episodes for Adolescents Using Marginal Structural Models and Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting
Substance use treatment is rarely a one-time event for individuals with substance use disorders. Sustained reductions in substance use and its related symptoms may result from multiple treatment episodes.
Mar 1, 2014
Working Smarter on Cold Cases: Identifying Factors Associated with Successful Cold Case Investigations
Cold case squads have garnered much attention; however, they have yet to undergo significant empirical scrutiny.
Mar 1, 2014
The use of propensity scores to control for pretreatment imbalances on observed variables in non-randomized or observational studies examining the causal effects of treatments or interventions has become widespread over the past decade.
Nonparametric Bayesian Multiple Imputation for Missing Data Due to Mid-Study Switching of Measurement Methods
Investigators often change how variables are measured during the middle of data-collection, for example, in hopes of obtaining greater accuracy or reducing costs.
Jul 1, 2012