Attacks designed to close runways with general-purpose bombs depend on the impact angle, impact velocity, point of detonation, size of the bomb, and compressive strength of the concrete. This short paper presents calculations to determine what combination of bomb type and delivery tactics are most effective against various target runways.
Green, J. R., The Performance of G.P. Bombs in Penetrating and Cratering Concrete Runways. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1963. https://www.rand.org/pubs/documents/D11110.html.
Green, J. R., The Performance of G.P. Bombs in Penetrating and Cratering Concrete Runways, RAND Corporation, D-11110-PR, 1963. As of November 29, 2023: https://www.rand.org/pubs/documents/D11110.html