Tobacco/nicotine and Marijuana Co-Use Motives in Young Adults

Associations with Substance Use Behaviors One Year Later

Published in: APA PsycNet (2020). doi: 10.1037/adb0000638

Posted on on September 22, 2020

by Eric R. Pedersen, Joan S. Tucker, Jordan P. Davis, Michael Stephen Dunbar, Rachana Seelam, Anthony Rodriguez, Elizabeth J. D'Amico

Read More

Access further information on this document at APA PsycNet

This article was published outside of RAND. The full text of the article can be found at the link above.

Co-administration of tobacco/nicotine and marijuana (e.g., using both products on the same occasion by mixing them in the same delivery device) is a risky, yet common, form of co-use among young adults. Understanding motivations for co-administration co-use, and how these are associated with subsequent use and related problems, is needed to inform policy, prevention, and intervention efforts. We conducted a latent class analysis on 342 young adults with past-year co-administration of tobacco/nicotine and marijuana to determine how emergent classes of 16 co-use motives were associated with use and co-administration co-use of tobacco/nicotine and marijuana one year later. Four classes emerged: (1) a high all class that reported high endorsement of all motives, (2) a high coping class that reported high endorsement of co-use due to coping with stress and bad moods, (3) a high social/physiological reinforcement class that reported low endorsement of coping but high probability of social and relaxation motives and motives to even out effects of each substance, and (4) a low all class that reported low endorsement of all motives. The high all and high coping classes reported greater frequency and quantity of single substance use and co-administration. The high coping class reported more marijuana consequences than the low all class. The high all and high coping classes reported younger age of initiation of each individual substance and co-administration. Considering co-use motives may be useful in identifying those at highest risk for future use and consequences and tailoring interventions to the distinct needs of co-use subgroups.

Research conducted by

This report is part of the RAND Corporation External publication series. Many RAND studies are published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals, as chapters in commercial books, or as documents published by other organizations.

Our mission to help improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis is enabled through our core values of quality and objectivity and our unwavering commitment to the highest level of integrity and ethical behavior. To help ensure our research and analysis are rigorous, objective, and nonpartisan, we subject our research publications to a robust and exacting quality-assurance process; avoid both the appearance and reality of financial and other conflicts of interest through staff training, project screening, and a policy of mandatory disclosure; and pursue transparency in our research engagements through our commitment to the open publication of our research findings and recommendations, disclosure of the source of funding of published research, and policies to ensure intellectual independence. For more information, visit

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.