An Audit Tool for Longitudinal Assessment of the Health-Related Characteristics of Urban Neighborhoods
Implementation Methods and Reliability Results
Published in: BMC Public Health, Volume 20, Article number 1519 (2020). doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-09424-8
Posted on RAND.org on March 16, 2021
Improving the neighborhood environment may help address chronic disease and mortality. To identify neighborhood features that are predictors of health, objective assessments of the environment are used. Multiple studies have reported on cross-sectional assessments of health-related neighborhood features using direct observation. As study designs expand to better understand causation and predictors of change, there is a need to test whether direct observation methods are adequate for longitudinal assessment. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the reliability of repeated measurements of the neighborhood environment, and their stability, over time.
The Pittsburgh Hill/Homewood Research on Neighborhood Change and Health (PHRESH) study conducted longitudinal assessments in two low-income, African American neighborhoods at three waves (years 2012, 2015, 2017). The PHRESH audit tool is a modification of earlier validated tools, with an emphasis on environment features relevant for physical activity, sleep, and obesogenic behaviors. Trained data-collector pairs conducted direct observations of a 25% sample of street segments in each neighborhood. At each wave, we audited a sub-sample of street segments twice and assessed reliability using percentage inter-observer agreement and krippendorf's alpha statistics. Stability of these items was assessed as exhibiting moderate or high agreement at every time point.
Across waves, a majority (81%) of the items consistently demonstrated moderate to high agreement except for items such as public/communal space, amount of shade, sidewalk features, number of traffic lanes, garden/flower bed/planter, art/statue/monument, amount of trash, and physical disorder. The list of items with poor agreement includes features that are easy to miss (e.g. flower bed/planter), hard to assess from outside (e.g. public/communal space), or may change quickly (e.g. amount of trash).
In this paper, we have described implementation methods, reliability results and lessons learned to inform future studies of change. We found the use of consistent methods allowed us to conduct reliable, replicable longitudinal assessments of the environment. Items that did not exhibit stability are less useful for detecting real change over time. Overall, the PHRESH direct observation tool is an effective and practical instrument to detect change in the neighborhood environment.