The frequency of vehicle ramming attacks as a means of violent extremism has increased in recent years, highlighting a serious threat to people in public spaces. This tactic requires little or no training, no specific skillset, and carries a relatively low risk of early detection. The European Commission (hereafter, 'the Commission') commissioned this study into 'measures to prevent terrorist attacks with vehicles and mitigate the impact thereof' to improve the evidence base on vehicular terrorist attacks that have occurred since 2013 in the EU, Israel, United States and United Kingdom and understand what measures could be employed to prevent or mitigate such attacks in the future.
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