The Evolution of U.S. Military Policy from the Constitution to the Present, Volume II

The Formative Years for U.S. Military Policy, 1898–1940

by Sean M. Zeigler, Alexandra T. Evans, Gian Gentile, Badreddine Ahtchi


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Tracing the evolution of the U.S. Army throughout American history, the authors of this four-volume series show that there is no such thing as a "traditional" U.S. military policy. Rather, the laws that authorize, empower, and govern the U.S. armed forces emerged from long-standing debates and a series of legislative compromises between 1903 and 1940.

Volume II focuses on the major laws enacted in the early 20th century that changed the federal government's relationship with the National Guard, established what would become today's Army Reserve, and improved the Army's ability to expand and develop trained specialists.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One


  • Chapter Two

    The Spanish-American War and Early Reform Efforts, 1898–1903

  • Chapter Three

    Army Reform from 1903 to 1916: The Debates Continue

  • Chapter Four

    Preparedness, World War I, and the 1920 Amendment to the 1916 National Defense Act

  • Chapter Five

    Refining Military Policy in the Interwar Years

  • Chapter Six

    Volume Conclusion

  • Appendix A

    Summary Table of 19th Century Militias and Volunteer Forces

  • Appendix B

    Summary Table of Legislation Pertaining to the Evolution of U.S. Military Policy

  • Appendix C

    Taxonomy of Important Terms

Research conducted by

This research was sponsored by the United States Army and conducted by the Strategy, Doctrine, and Resources Program within the RAND Arroyo Center.

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