Violent and antisocial behaviour at football events and strategies to prevent and respond to these behaviours

Final synthesis report

by Lucy Strang, Emma Disley

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السلوكيات العنيفة والمعادية للمجتمع في مباريات كرة القدم واستراتيجيات الحد منها والتعامل معها: التقرير التجميعي النهائي

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Research Questions

  1. What has been the nature and prevalence of antisocial and violent behaviours among populations watching and attending major sporting events, in particular international football matches?
  2. Which factors are associated with these behaviours (and in particular what is the relevance of alcohol consumption) and what is the nature of the association?
  3. Which approaches have been taken to prevent and respond to these behaviours?
  4. To what extent have these approaches proved effective?
  5. What specific recommendations follow from the findings that could be used in Qatar in planning for the World Cup in 2022, and where are the opportunities for further research?

Qatar University commissioned RAND Europe to undertake a study into violence and disorder at international sporting events. In preparing for the 2022 World Cup, the Qatari authorities recognised that there was an opportunity to learn from the available research into the prevalence, nature and causes of violence and disorder at other sporting events, and to draw on promising practices to prevent and respond to these harms.

Key Findings

  • While there is no single factor that causes disorder in football crowds, evidence suggests that some interventions can be effective in preventing and responding to violent and antisocial behaviour. This means that host nations should be able to take practical steps to minimise the chances of disorder during a tournament.
  • There is a menu of 'promising practices' that event organisers can consider.
  • There are opportunities for further research before, during and after Qatar 2022.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One


  • Chapter Two

    Study approach, strengths and limitations

  • Chapter Three

    Nature, prevalence and factors associated with violent and antisocial behaviours

  • Chapter Four

    Preventing and responding to antisocial and violent behaviour

  • Chapter Five

    Key lessons for Qatar and next steps

  • Annex

    study methods

Research conducted by

The research described in this report was commissioned by Qatar University and conducted by RAND Europe.

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