Provision of an indicative, non-exhaustive list of Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas (CAHRAs) under Regulation 2017/821

Updated methodology

by Jacopo Bellasio, Victoria Jordan, Pauline Paillé, Anna Knack, Ruth Harris

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The European Union (EU) is committed to ensuring that minerals and metals that are used for European products are sourced responsibly and align with European policies on conflict prevention and the development of local communities. In 2017, Regulation (EU) 2017/821 laying down supply chain due diligence obligations for Union importers of tin, tantalum and tungsten, their ores, and gold originating from conflict-affected and high-risk areas was adopted. This regulation requires EU importers to ensure that the minerals with which they work originate from responsible sources and that businesses comply with and report on supply chain due diligence obligations, with special focus on so-called conflict-affected and high-risk areas (CAHRAs). Regulation 2017/821 sets out in Article 14(2) that the European Commission (EC) shall call upon external expertise to provide an indicative, non-exhaustive, regularly updated list of CAHRAs.

In 2019, RAND Europe was commissioned to develop and maintain a credible, indicative, non-exhaustive, regularly updated list of CAHRAs under Regulation 2017/821 to facilitate the calibration of due diligence efforts made by EU importers of relevant minerals. This document presents the updated methodology employed for the development and updating of the indicative, non-exhaustive, regularly updated list of CAHRAs under Regulation 2017/821 produced under this project. This report has been drafted for stakeholders interested in Regulation 2017/821 and methodologies for identifying CAHRAs.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One


  • Chapter Two

    Methodology requirements

  • Chapter Three


  • Chapter Four

    Subsequent project activities

Research conducted by

This research was prepared for the Europe Commission Directorate General for Trade and conducted by RAND Europe.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation Research report series. RAND reports present research findings and objective analysis that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors. All RAND reports undergo rigorous peer review to ensure high standards for research quality and objectivity.

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