Jul 15, 2021
This volume serves as the technical analysis to a report concerning the potential for artificial intelligence systems to assist in Air Force command and control (C2). The authors present their analysis of the problem characteristics and solution capabilities described in Volume 1. They provide details about the expert panel used to gather data and three technical case studies that demonstrate a wide range of solutions to various C2 problems.
This volume serves as the technical analysis to a report concerning the potential for artificial intelligence (AI) systems to assist in Air Force command and control (C2) from a technical perspective. The authors detail the taxonomy of ten C2 problem characteristics. They present the results of a structured interview protocol that enabled scoring of problem characteristics for C2 processes with subject-matter experts (SMEs). Using the problem taxonomy and the structured interview protocol, they analyzed ten games and ten C2 processes. To demonstrate the problem taxonomy and the structured interview protocol for a C2 problem, they then applied them to sensor management as performed by an air battle manager.
The authors then turn to eight AI system solution capabilities. As for the C2 problem characteristics, they created a structured protocol to enable valid and reliable scoring of solution capabilities for a given AI system. Using the solution taxonomy and the structured interview protocol, they analyzed ten AI systems.
The authors present additional details about the design, implementation, and results of the expert panel that was used to determine which of the eight solution capabilities are needed to address each of the ten problem characteristics. Finally, they present three technical case studies that demonstrate a wide range of computational, AI, and human solutions to various C2 problems.
Analysis of Problem Characteristics
Analysis of Solution Capabilities
Expert Panel Design, Implementation, and Additional Results
Metrics for Evaluating Artificial Intelligence Solutions
Case Study 1: Master Air Attack Planning
Case Study 2: Automatic Target Recognition with Learning
Case Study 3: Human-Machine Teaming for Personnel Recovery
Artificial Intelligence History
Mathematical Details for Closed-Loop Automatic Target Recognition