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This volume serves as the technical analysis to a report concerning the potential for artificial intelligence (AI) systems to assist in Air Force command and control (C2) from a technical perspective. The authors detail the taxonomy of ten C2 problem characteristics. They present the results of a structured interview protocol that enabled scoring of problem characteristics for C2 processes with subject-matter experts (SMEs). Using the problem taxonomy and the structured interview protocol, they analyzed ten games and ten C2 processes. To demonstrate the problem taxonomy and the structured interview protocol for a C2 problem, they then applied them to sensor management as performed by an air battle manager.

The authors then turn to eight AI system solution capabilities. As for the C2 problem characteristics, they created a structured protocol to enable valid and reliable scoring of solution capabilities for a given AI system. Using the solution taxonomy and the structured interview protocol, they analyzed ten AI systems.

The authors present additional details about the design, implementation, and results of the expert panel that was used to determine which of the eight solution capabilities are needed to address each of the ten problem characteristics. Finally, they present three technical case studies that demonstrate a wide range of computational, AI, and human solutions to various C2 problems.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One

    Analysis of Problem Characteristics

  • Chapter Two

    Analysis of Solution Capabilities

  • Chapter Three

    Expert Panel Design, Implementation, and Additional Results

  • Chapter Four

    Metrics for Evaluating Artificial Intelligence Solutions

  • Chapter Five

    Case Study 1: Master Air Attack Planning

  • Chapter Six

    Case Study 2: Automatic Target Recognition with Learning

  • Chapter Seven

    Case Study 3: Human-Machine Teaming for Personnel Recovery

  • Appendix A

    Artificial Intelligence History

  • Appendix B

    Mathematical Details for Closed-Loop Automatic Target Recognition

Research conducted by

The research described in this report was prepared for the the Air Force Research Laboratory, Information Directorate (AFRL/RI) and conducted by the Force Modernization and Employment Program within RAND Project AIR FORCE.

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