Civil-Military Relations

A Comparative Study of India and Pakistan

by Kotera Bhimaya

Download eBook for Free

FormatFile SizeNotes
PDF file 9 MB

Use Adobe Acrobat Reader version 10 or higher for the best experience.

Political culture, including but not limited to political leadership, has emerged as an important factor which affects the forms of civilian control over the military in India and Pakistan. Over time, while the Indian military have internalized the concept of civilian supremacy, the Pakistani military have institutionalized its role in political decision-making. This research spoke to a central policy question: how can policy makers best ensure against unwarranted or inappropriate military interventions in domestic politics? Several policy measures suggested themselves. First, the military should be used sparingly to suppress domestic violence. When used, military activities should be strictly supervised by the civilian authorities. Second, there is an urgent need to integrate day-to-day functioning of the military and the multiple civil and police agencies, in order to enhance cooperation and reduce mutual distrust and animosity. Third, a complex polity, such as India, requires a high caliber political leadership which cares less about building "vote banks" than it does about addressing social, political, and economic problems. Safeguarding the interest of minorities is the essence of any political action. Last but not least, politicians and the media should sensitize the lay public to national security issues, so that security planning proceeds with the benefit of input from multiple sources and from informed debate.

Research conducted by

This report is part of the RAND Corporation Dissertation series. Pardee RAND dissertations are produced by graduate fellows of the Pardee RAND Graduate School, the world's leading producer of Ph.D.'s in policy analysis. The dissertations are supervised, reviewed, and approved by a Pardee RAND faculty committee overseeing each dissertation.

This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by law. This representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of this publication online is prohibited; linking directly to this product page is encouraged. Permission is required from RAND to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of its research documents for commercial purposes. For information on reprint and reuse permissions, please visit

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.