This study uses the 2003-2004 Consumer Expenditure Survey to assess costs incurred by dual-income, married-couple households. It finds that, compared to one-earner households with equal income and similar demographics, dual-earner households pay significantly more in tax, social security and private pension contributions but, except for families with pre-school children, do not have more work-related expenditures. The findings indicate a convergence of consumption patterns between one-earner and two-earner households. They also indicate that dual-earner households save more for retirement through pension plans.
Lee, Seonglim, Jinkook Lee, and Yunhee Chang, What is the Cost of Married Women's Paid Work?. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2011. https://www.rand.org/pubs/working_papers/WR830.html.
Lee, Seonglim, Jinkook Lee, and Yunhee Chang, What is the Cost of Married Women's Paid Work?, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, WR-830, 2011. As of December 08, 2021: https://www.rand.org/pubs/working_papers/WR830.html