Flooding

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  • A facility at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, was severely damaged by Hurricane Michael, October 10, 2018, photo by Staff Sgt. Ryan Conroy/U.S. Air Force

    Report

    How Can the Department of the Air Force Prepare for Natural Hazards?

    Some Air Force facilities are exposed to flooding, high winds, wildfires, or even multiple hazards. Future costs of damages are uncertain, and climate change could affect the frequency and scale of these hazards. The process for making investment decisions regarding resilience should be flexible.

    Aug 9, 2021

  • Flooding in Pittsburgh,  photo by Artem S/Getty Images

    Research Brief

    Green Infrastructure Can Help Manage Rainfall in an Urban Watershed

    Urbanization, inadequate investment in aging infrastructure, and more-frequent heavy rainfall events due to climate change have led to sewer overflows, flooding, and reduced water quality in U.S. cities. The challenges of increasing volumes of stormwater can be addressed by a mix of solutions.

    Oct 29, 2020

Explore Flooding

  • Earth ruling power concept

    Multimedia

    Observed Impacts, Future Risks, and Adaptation Solutions

    An overview of testimony by Robert J. Lempert presented before the Minnesota House of Representatives Committee on Climate and Energy Finance and Policy on March 10, 2022.

    Apr 13, 2022

  • Traffic barriers with a sign reading "Road Closed High Water" on the roadside near Washington Boulevard, Pittsburgh, PA. Photo by Jordan Fischbach / RAND Corporation

    Report

    Managing Heavy Rainfall with Green Infrastructure

    An evaluation of Pittsburgh's Negley Run watershed shows how green stormwater infrastructure could reduce flooding and provide positive economic benefits in areas that face urgent flood risk.

    Oct 26, 2020

  • An aerial view of Joint Base Langley-Eustis and the Hampton Roads area, Virginia, May 20, 2018, photo by SrA Anthony Nin Leclerec/U.S. Air Force

    Essay

    Civilians and Military Collaborate to Address Climate Change

    The Hampton Roads area in Virginia is home to more than 1.7 million people, a major port, and more military installations than anywhere else in the United States. Its rising sea levels and floods brought together civilian and military officials on a project to mitigate damage and foster resiliency.

    May 13, 2020

  • Skyline of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, illustration by Malte Muller

    Essay

    Resilience and Adaptation Strategies Can Address the Impacts of Climate Change

    With climate change already generating storms, heat waves, and droughts beyond historical norms, local governments need to do more to prepare. A decisionmaking framework developed by RAND allows communities to stress-test ideas, weigh the trade-offs, and plan for a range of possible futures.

    Feb 26, 2019

  • Houses are seen partially submerged in flood waters caused by Tropical Storm Harvey in Northwest Houston, Texas, August 30, 2017

    Commentary

    Why Houstonians Didn't Buy Flood Insurance

    Thousands of Houston-area homeowners will face massive, uninsured losses due to flood damage. Few homeowners buy flood insurance unless they are required to, and it's only mandatory for homes with mortgages located in FEMA-defined high-risk flood zones. People tend to ignore low-probability risks.

    Sep 12, 2017

  • News Release

    News Release

    Rising Flood Insurance Costs a Growing Burden to Communities and Homeowners in New York City

    Hurricane Sandy underscored the need for greater resilience to flooding. Insurance is part of the strategy, but it is spotty among one- to four-family properties in New York and is difficult for some to afford. Adding to the challenge is direction from Congress to phase out subsidies in the National Flood Insurance Program.

    Mar 27, 2017

  • Cars stranded in flood waters from Hurricane Irene in lower Manhattan, August 28, 2011

    Commentary

    Why Engineers Need to Be Thinking About Climate Change

    As sea levels rise and extreme weather events become more common, evacuation routes in coastal areas will become more important. Transportation engineers need to be more proactive as they try to anticipate damage to pavement, bridges, and culverts.

    Feb 22, 2016

  • Tourists walk past the entrance to the Hurricane Katrina Memorial, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 23, 2015

    Blog

    Hurricane Katrina: 10 Years After the Storm

    This weekend marks 10 years since Hurricane Katrina ravaged the Gulf Coast. As the region struggled to cope and rebuild after the storm, RAND experts worked on solutions to the region's long-term challenges.

    Aug 27, 2015

  • Flood waters from Hurricane Isaac partially submerge homes in Lafitte, Louisiana neighborhoods in August 2012

    Commentary

    Future of Coastal Flooding

    President Obama's executive order that directs federal agencies to plan and build for higher flood levels as they construct new projects in flood-prone regions will affect hundreds of billions of dollars of future public works projects. In an ideal world, planners would estimate the benefits and costs for each project, taking into account everything from the details of the local landscape to the potential for adaptive responses over time.

    Feb 25, 2015

  • News Release

    News Release

    Tools Can Help Policymakers Increase Coastal Resilience to Rising Seas and Storm Surge

    Two key analytic tools can be used to evaluate how coastal protection and restoration decisions made now will play out over time, even given an uncertain future.

    Feb 21, 2014

  • men walk through flooding left by the storm surge of Superstorm Sandy in the New Dorp Beach neighborhood of Staten Island

    Commentary

    A Year After Sandy, a New Threat to New York City

    As residents continue to recover from Superstorm Sandy, they are about to confront dramatic changes in the flood insurance landscape. Changes to federal floodplain maps will mean thousands of New Yorkers will suddenly be living in areas designated as high-risk flood, which will send their insurance rates soaring.

    Nov 5, 2013

  • News Release

    News Release

    Rising Cost of Flood Insurance Will Create Serious Challenges for New York City

    Some New York City residents may soon face sharp increases in their flood insurance premiums as a result of major changes occurring in the National Flood Insurance Program and the redrawing of flood maps that expand the areas at risk. Property owners in areas now deemed at highest risk may face increases of $5,000 to $10,000 annually.

    Oct 25, 2013

  • Vietnamese woman paddling a boat

    Project

    Ensuring Robust Flood Risk Management in Vietnam

    Ho Chi Minh City faces significant and growing flood risk. Recent risk reduction efforts may not work if climate and socio-economic conditions diverge from earlier projections. Robust decision making can help Vietnam's largest city develop integrated flood risk management strategies despite this uncertainty.

    Aug 16, 2013

  • Sunrise over Louisiana wetlands

    Solution

    Helping Coastal Communities Plan for Climate Change

    The vulnerability of coastal residents to loss of life and property damage from storm-surge flooding has already proven extensive in recent years. RAND has helped policymakers determine what mix of hurricane risk reduction and coastal restoration projects can reduce hurricane damage risk and rebuild coastal land, recognizing budget constraints.

    Jun 10, 2013

  • Jordan Fischbach

    Blog

    In Brief: Jordan R. Fischbach on Adapting to Climate Change on the Coast

    In this video, Jordan Fischbach discusses how RAND helped Louisiana develop its 2012 Coastal Master Plan and key lessons that can make other communities more resilient in the face of natural disasters.

    Feb 6, 2013

  • Louisiana coast

    Multimedia

    Adapting to Climate Change on the Coast: Lessons from Louisiana for Federal Policy

    In this January 2013 Congressional Briefing, Jordan Fischbach discusses how RAND helped Louisiana develop its 2012 Coastal Master Plan and key lessons that can make other communities more resilient in the face of natural disasters.

    Jan 23, 2013

  • Aerial photos of New Jersey coastline in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy

    Commentary

    In Wake of Hurricane Sandy, Look to Louisiana for Lessons

    Just as public agencies across the country conducted terrorism risk assessments in the wake of 9/11, a comprehensive infrastructure assessment may be in order to understand natural hazard risks and the potential exacerbating effects of climate change, write Gary Cecchine, David Groves, and Jordan Fischbach.

    Nov 1, 2012

  • Flooded I-10/I-610/West End Blvd interchange and surrounding area of northwest New Orleans and Metairie, Louisiana

    Project

    Reducing New Orleans Storm-Surge Flood Risk in an Uncertain Future

    Preparing for natural disasters is a long, multi-faceted process that requires years of planning, coordination, and direct action. RAND has developed a new approach for assessing hurricane flood risk in New Orleans under uncertainty and evaluating city-wide approaches for reducing this risk.

    Sep 10, 2012

  • USACE New Orleans District Mississippi River Tie-In

    Commentary

    Has the Gulf Coast Learned Katrina's Lessons in Time for Isaac?

    Seven years after Hurricane Katrina, it's clear that New Orleans and other cities along the Gulf Coast are applying what they learned then in preparation for Hurricane Isaac, write Gary Cecchine and Jordan R. Fischbach.

    Aug 29, 2012