From Testing to Deploying Nuclear Forces

The Hard Choices Facing India and Pakistan

by Gregory S. Jones

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Do India and Pakistan intend to develop fully deployed nuclear forces? If they do, their tests were only the first step a fully deployed nuclear force must take to meet the requirements for a nuclear deterrent. These requirements were first delineated by Albert Wohlstetter in his seminal article "The Delicate Balance of Terror." These "Cold War" standards are still applicable today and will be difficult for either India or Pakistan to meet. This issue paper discusses what decisions India and Pakistan must make in order to attempt to fulfill these requirements and describes the risks involved in their failure to attain them.

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