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In January 2007, New York City Police Commissioner Raymond W. Kelly wanted to make sure that his department was doing everything necessary to minimize the unnecessary discharge of firearms. He asked the RAND Corporation to examine the quality and completeness of the New York City Police Department (NYPD) firearm-training program and identify potential improvements in the design and delivery of the curriculum, the technology used, the frequency and duration of training sessions, the tactics and procedures on which the training is based, and the police department's firearm-discharge review process. This monograph reports the observations, findings, and recommendations of that study.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One


  • Chapter Two

    Firearm-Discharge Policy and Experience in New York City

  • Chapter Three


  • Chapter Four

    The Firearm-Discharge Investigation and Review Process

  • Chapter Five

    Analysis of Factors Associated with NYPD Officers Discharging Their Firearms

  • Chapter Six

    The Need for an Improved Less-Than-Lethal Standoff Weapon

  • Chapter Seven

    Other Innovative Technologies

  • Chapter Eight

    Reflexive Shooting

  • Chapter Nine

    Summary of Findings and Recommendations

  • Appendix

    Data and Methodology

The research described in this monograph was conducted under the auspices of the RAND Center on Quality Policing within the Safety and Justice Program of RAND Infrastructure, Safety, and Environment (ISE).

This report is part of the RAND Corporation Monograph series. RAND monographs present major research findings that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors. All RAND monographs undergo rigorous peer review to ensure high standards for research quality and objectivity.

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The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.