Options for Improving School Leadership
Dec 13, 2016
This updated report describes the opportunities for supporting school leadership under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESSA). It discusses the standards of evidence under ESSA; synthesizes the evidence base on school leadership interventions with respect to those standards; and guides federal, state, and district education policymakers on the use of research-based practices.
Updated and Expanded
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This report was updated in January 2017 to include Appendix C and again in December 2017 to include Appendix D. The reauthorization of the U.S. Elementary and Secondary Education Act, referred to as the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), emphasizes evidence-based initiatives while providing new flexibilities to states and districts with regard to the use of federal funds, including funds to promote effective school leadership. This report describes the opportunities for supporting school leadership under ESSA, discusses the standards of evidence under ESSA, and synthesizes the research base with respect to those standards. The information can guide federal, state, and district education policymakers on the use of research-based school leadership interventions; help them identify examples of improvement activities that should be allowable under ESSA; and support the rollout of such interventions. This report updates an earlier version and incorporates nonregulatory guidance from the U.S. Department of Education, analysis of tier IV evidence, and reviews of additional studies.
How Does ESSA Support School Leadership Improvement?
How Does ESSA Define Evidence?
What Is the Evidence of Effects of ESSA-Eligible School Leadership–Improvement Activities?
Recommendations for Using This Review
State Exemptions to ESSA Evidence Requirements
Evidence Requirements Across Federal Legislation and Policy
Summary of Updates to Evidence Report in December 2016 Release
Descriptive Summaries of Evidence-Based School Leadership Interventions
This research has been conducted in RAND Education, a division of the RAND Corporation, with grant funding from The Wallace Foundation.
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