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Harnessing the power of old and new technology, it is easier than ever for U.S. allies and adversaries to reach — and influence — vast and varied audiences to achieve their strategic goals. Modern conflicts are fought as much in the information environment as on the physical battlefield, and the line between these domains is dissolving. Less sophisticated state actors and even nonstate actors have acquired capabilities previously available only to the most advanced nations to use information power in support of their objectives. Adversaries of the United States and its allies do not operate under the same legal and ethical constraints and are free to engage in offensive cyberwarfare, disseminate propaganda, censor traditional and online media, and threaten their detractors. As it prioritizes investments in future capabilities, the U.S. Army stands to benefit from an examination of the evolution of allied and adversary information campaigns, as well as their successes, failures, and potential future directions. This collection of 12 detailed case studies reviews the information-related activities and strategic goals of a range of allies, adversaries, and potential adversaries, highlighting insights for future U.S. Army force planning. A companion volume, Lessons Others for Future U.S. Army Operations in and Through the Information Environment, presents a comparative analysis of the cases, highlighting the capability areas in which others excel to guide the Army in either adopting or countering these practices and principles.

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This research was sponsored by Deputy Chief of Staff, G-3/5/7, and conducted by the Strategy, Doctrine, and Resources Program within the RAND Arroyo Center.

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