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Research Questions

  1. Which jurisdictions have introduced alternative models to profit-maximising commercialisation of cannabis supply for non-medical use?
  2. How are these models designed, particularly in terms of measures/regulations to safeguard: public health, public safety/security and public order?
  3. Which alternatives to profit-maximising commercial models for the supply of cannabis for non-medical use (not yet implemented) might also be effective in terms of strong health and safety/security protection based on evidence in other fields (alcohol and other substances) and/or theoretical reflections?
  4. What are the advantages, disadvantages, trade-offs and challenges of these alternatives to profit-maximising commercial supply models for non-medical use in terms of public health and public safety/security? What evidence is already available? Which consequences, if any, can be anticipated from a theoretical point of view?

This report presents the findings from a study funded by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health to identify and analyse alternatives to profit-maximising commercial models of cannabis supply for non-medical use. This report provides a detailed overview of the regulatory frameworks which have introduced such models and considers the available evidence on the consequences of their implementation.

Key Findings

  • There are important differences in how models for home cultivation and cannabis social clubs have been regulated and implemented throughout the world.
  • Parts of Canada and Uruguay demonstrate that it is possible to implement versions of government sales.
  • In jurisdictions which offer multiple supply models, there is very little research attempting to isolate the effects of the different models.
  • Rigorous outcome evaluations of alternative models to profit-maximising commercialisation of cannabis for non-medical purposes are rare but increasing.
  • There are other non-profit models that have not yet been implemented.

Research conducted by

This research was mandated by the Federal Office of Public Health and conducted by Rand Europe.

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