- Which jurisdictions have introduced alternative models to profit-maximising commercialisation of cannabis supply for non-medical use?
- How are these models designed, particularly in terms of measures/regulations to safeguard: public health, public safety/security and public order?
- Which alternatives to profit-maximising commercial models for the supply of cannabis for non-medical use (not yet implemented) might also be effective in terms of strong health and safety/security protection based on evidence in other fields (alcohol and other substances) and/or theoretical reflections?
- What are the advantages, disadvantages, trade-offs and challenges of these alternatives to profit-maximising commercial supply models for non-medical use in terms of public health and public safety/security? What evidence is already available? Which consequences, if any, can be anticipated from a theoretical point of view?
This report presents the findings from a study funded by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health to identify and analyse alternatives to profit-maximising commercial models of cannabis supply for non-medical use. This report provides a detailed overview of the regulatory frameworks which have introduced such models and considers the available evidence on the consequences of their implementation.
- There are important differences in how models for home cultivation and cannabis social clubs have been regulated and implemented throughout the world.
- Parts of Canada and Uruguay demonstrate that it is possible to implement versions of government sales.
- In jurisdictions which offer multiple supply models, there is very little research attempting to isolate the effects of the different models.
- Rigorous outcome evaluations of alternative models to profit-maximising commercialisation of cannabis for non-medical purposes are rare but increasing.
- There are other non-profit models that have not yet been implemented.
This research was mandated by the Federal Office of Public Health and conducted by Rand Europe.
This report is part of the RAND research report series. RAND reports present research findings and objective analysis that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors. All RAND reports undergo rigorous peer review to ensure high standards for research quality and objectivity.
This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by law. This representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of this publication online is prohibited; linking directly to this product page is encouraged. Permission is required from RAND to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of its research documents for commercial purposes. For information on reprint and reuse permissions, please visit www.rand.org/pubs/permissions.
RAND is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.