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In 2002, the Cincinnati Police Department (CPD), the Fraternal Order of Police, and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) entered into a collaborative agreement. This agreement pledges its signatories (the parties) to collaborate in efforts to resolve social conflict, improve community relations, and avoid litigation. The agreement requires the CPD to implement a variety of changes, most notably the adoption of Community Problem-Oriented Policing (CPOP) as a strategy for addressing crime problems and engaging the community. Other provisions of the agreement require the CPD to establish a civilian complaint review process. The collaborative agreement incorporates a previous agreement between the CPD and the U.S. Department of Justice on use-of-force issues. The agreement specifies the need to evaluate achievement of its goals. In 2004, the parties contracted with RAND to conduct this evaluation. These goals are assessed through a variety of evaluation mechanisms, including surveys of citizens and of CPD officers; analyses of motor vehicle stops and of CPD staffing patterns; periodic observations of structured meetings between citizens and representatives of the CPD; and a review of CPD statistical compilations. The collaborative agreement requires an annual assessment of progress toward the agreement’s goals. This report is the first such annual review.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One


  • Chapter Two

    The Context of Policing in Cincinnati: Crime, Arrests, and Use of Force

  • Chapter Three

    Staffing and Personnel Actions in the Cincinnati Police Department, 2004

  • Chapter Four

    Analysis of Vehicle Stops

  • Chapter Five

    Analysis of Videotaped Police-Motorist Interactions

  • Chapter Six

    Community-Police Satisfaction Survey

  • Chapter Seven

    Perceptions of Citizen Interactions with the Police in Cincinnati

  • Chapter Eight

    Satisfaction of Police Officers Working in Cincinnati

  • Chapter Nine

    Citizen and Officer Satisfaction with the Complaint Process

  • Chapter Ten

    Periodic Observations and Problem-Solving Processes

  • Chapter Eleven

    Summary and Conclusions

  • Appendix 4.A

    Technical Details on Propensity Score Weighting

  • Appendix 5.A

    Reliability of Audio/Video Coding

  • Appendix 5.B

    Police-Civilian Videotaped Interactions Codebook

  • Appendix 6.A

    Community-Police Survey

  • Appendix 6.B

    Neighborhood Tables

  • Appendix 7.A

    Citizen-Police Interaction Survey

  • Appendix 8.A

    Police Officer Survey

  • Appendix 9.A

    Complaint/Internal Review Survey

  • Appendix 10.A

    Community Meeting Survey

  • Appendix 10.B

    Observations of Community Meetings in the City of Cincinnati

  • Appendix 10.C

    Problem Solving Survey

  • Appendix 10.D

    Observations of Problem-Solving Project Meetings in Cincinnati Police Department

  • Appendix C

    Comments from the Parties and Monitor on the Report

The research described in this report was conducted within RAND Infrastructure, Safety, and Environment (ISE), a division of the RAND Corporation, for the City of Cincinnati.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation Technical report series. RAND technical reports may include research findings on a specific topic that is limited in scope or intended for a narrow audience; present discussions of the methodology employed in research; provide literature reviews, survey instruments, modeling exercises, guidelines for practitioners and research professionals, and supporting documentation; or deliver preliminary findings. All RAND reports undergo rigorous peer review to ensure that they meet high standards for research quality and objectivity.

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