Preparedness for 988 Throughout the United States
Jun 21, 2022
An Evidence Inventory (2012–2021)
|zip file||0.1 MB||
The file(s) provided above are ZIP-formatted archives, which most modern systems can natively unpack. If your computer does not unpack the archive when you double-click it, you may need to use a separate decompression program such as UnZip.
This web-based tool provides summary information on studies about mental health emergency hotlines in the United States. This information—including hotline name and modality and study design, sample size, population, and findings—could be valuable to policymakers and administrators as they consider investments in new call centers in the ramp-up for 988, the national mental health emergency hotline number that will go live in July 2022.
In their inventory, RAND researchers identified and coded peer-reviewed articles on mental health emergency hotlines in the United States published over the past ten years (2012–2021). They conceptualized mental health hotlines as telephone, text message, chat, and other internet-based communication systems that offered timely support and resources for individuals in mental health emergencies—meaning that the individuals expressed acute needs pertaining to mental health concerns, such as depressive or anxiety symptoms or psychological distress.
The researchers were particularly interested in information regarding (1) who tends to be reached and not reached by hotlines in the United States, (2) typical caller volume and engagement, (3) barriers to and facilitators of successful implementation, and (4) the most common responses and outcomes observed from calls.
This research was sponsored by the Sozosei Foundation and conducted by RAND Health Care.
This report is part of the RAND Corporation Tool series. RAND tools may include models, databases, calculators, computer code, GIS mapping tools, practitioner guidelines, web applications, and various toolkits. All RAND tools undergo rigorous peer review to ensure both high data standards and appropriate methodology in keeping with RAND's commitment to quality and objectivity.
Our mission to help improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis is enabled through our core values of quality and objectivity and our unwavering commitment to the highest level of integrity and ethical behavior. To help ensure our research and analysis are rigorous, objective, and nonpartisan, we subject our research publications to a robust and exacting quality-assurance process; avoid both the appearance and reality of financial and other conflicts of interest through staff training, project screening, and a policy of mandatory disclosure; and pursue transparency in our research engagements through our commitment to the open publication of our research findings and recommendations, disclosure of the source of funding of published research, and policies to ensure intellectual independence. For more information, visit www.rand.org/about/research-integrity.
This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by law. This representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of this publication online is prohibited; linking directly to this product page is encouraged. Permission is required from RAND to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of its research documents for commercial purposes. For information on reprint and reuse permissions, please visit www.rand.org/pubs/permissions.
The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.