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Food security is an urgent concern, drawing the attention of policymakers at all levels of governance. Stakeholders have been seeking new approaches to addressing food insecurity, particularly during times of stress in the global food system, and they often view emerging technologies as viable solutions. However, technology adoption must be considered within the context of agriculture's embeddedness in commodity markets, financial systems, political systems, trade arrangements, and sociocultural norms. Through a comprehensive literature review, this paper examines how blockchain, the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI) with machine learning, and satellite imaging are being or could be implemented to decrease uncertainty and mitigate risks to support agricultural production and distribution. Specifically, it engages with the implications of these technologies for agriculture in less developed regions, with a focus on India and Pakistan. This systematic review also establishes a knowledge base for the development of a paper prototype of a food system game, including a high-level game framework, the initial draft of core rules, and vignettes illustrative of scenarios that might emerge in play. This type of game would allow participants to effectively investigate the various factors and stakeholders involved in the decisionmaking process for technology adoption in agriculture and food production. As such, the paper prototype and our review of the four technological solutions and their potential integration with existing systems, implementation bottlenecks, and the (mis)alignment of various stakeholders aims to provide a blueprint to policymakers interested in ensuring food security at a regional, and by extension, global level.

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The research described in this report was conducted by the Pardee Global Human Progress Initiative and Pardee RAND Graduate School's Tech and Narrative Lab.

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