Passenger Traffic

  • Report

    Bus fare and journey time elasticities and diversion factors for all modes: A rapid evidence assessment

    In this review a substantial database of diversion-factor evidence was collated. Little recent evidence on bus fare and generalised journey time elasticities was identified. Recommendations are provided, based on analysis of the available evidence.

    Jul 9, 2018

  • Depiction of self-driving cars in road lanes

    Multimedia

    Safety in a World of Driverless Cars

    In this Call with the Experts, senior information scientist Nidhi Kalra discusses a RAND study that shows putting driverless cars on the road before they're nearly perfect could save lives, and also describes new approaches for safety standards.

    Feb 15, 2018

  • A still image from the Autonomous Vehicle Safety Scenario Explorer tool showing a line and bar chart, comparing future scenarios with autonomous vehicles against a future without AVs.

    Tool

    Enemy of Good: Autonomous Vehicle Safety Scenario Explorer

    How safe should highly automated vehicles (HAVs) be before they are allowed on the roads for consumer use? This tool lets users develop their own future scenarios and estimates the resulting fatalities against a future without AVs.

    Nov 7, 2017

  • A self-driving Uber drives in Pittsburgh during a media preview

    Report

    Deploying Autonomous Vehicles Before They're Perfect Will Save More Lives

    Autonomous vehicles should only have to be moderately better than human drivers before being widely used in the United States. This approach could save thousands of lives annually even before the technology is perfected.

    Nov 7, 2017

  • A self-driving car (L) being developed by nuTonomy, a company creating software for autonomous vehicles, is guided down a street near their offices in Boston, Massachusetts, June 2, 2017

    Report

    RAND Model of Automated Vehicle Safety (MAVS): Model Documentation

    This report describes a simple model of how factors shaping the diffusion and performance of highly automated vehicles may interact and result in different safety outcomes over time.

    Nov 7, 2017

  • A self-driving car being developed by nuTonomy

    Article

    Why Waiting for Perfect Autonomous Vehicles May Cost Lives

    Some people think autonomous vehicles must be flawless before humans take their hands off the wheel. But putting AVs on the road before they're perfect improves the technology more quickly—and could save hundreds of thousands of lives over time.

    Nov 7, 2017

  • Multimedia

    How Safe Should Autonomous Vehicles Be Before They're Introduced to Market?

    RAND researchers Nidhi Kalra and David G. Groves developed a model to compare 500 different scenarios of autonomous vehicle introduction, adoption, and improvement. The research shows that putting autonomous vehicles on the road sooner, allowing them to improve quicker, could save hundreds of thousands of lives over time.

    Nov 7, 2017

  • News Release

    Introducing Autonomous Vehicles Sooner Could Save Hundreds of Thousands of Lives Over Time

    Autonomous vehicles should only have to be moderately better than human drivers before being widely used in the United States, an approach that could save thousands of lives annually even before the technology is perfected.

    Nov 7, 2017

  • An autonomous version of Acura's RLX Sport Hybrid SH-AWD stops for a simulated pedestrian crossing at carmaker Honda's testing grounds at the GoMentum Station autonomous vehicle test facility in Concord, California, June 1, 2016

    Report

    How Should Autonomous Vehicles Be Regulated?

    Autonomous vehicles could greatly reduce the risk of crashes. But the safety benefits are not yet proven and may not be known until AVs are widespread. What kind of regulatory approach could help balance innovation, risk, and uncertainty?

    Sep 18, 2017

  • A Tesla Model S with version 7.0 software update containing Autopilot features is seen during a Tesla event in Palo Alto, California, October 14, 2015

    Commentary

    Tesla Fatal Crash Reminds That Human Interface Remains Important

    The first reported fatality in a self-driving vehicle is a chilling reminder that the evolving relationship with increasingly robotic motor vehicles needs to be a partnership, an undertaking with humans and machines managing the risks.

    Jul 30, 2016

  • The interior of a Tesla Model S is shown in autopilot mode in San Francisco, California, April 7, 2016

    Commentary

    Fatal Crash Shouldn't Kill Self-Driving Cars

    The first known fatality in an autonomous vehicle occurred on May 7 and raises important questions. It does not, however, mean that self-driving cars are less safe than human drivers or that development of the technology should be stopped.

    Jul 16, 2016

  • Advertisement from 1957 for "America's Independent Electric Light and Power Companies" showing an autonomous car

    Report

    Self-Driving Vehicles Offer Potential Benefits, Policy Challenges for Lawmakers

    Self-driving vehicles offer the promise of significant benefits to society, but raise several policy challenges, including the need to update insurance liability regulations and privacy concerns such as who will control the data generated by this technology.

    Mar 22, 2016

  • A line of Lexus SUVs equipped with Google self-driving sensors awaits test riders in Mountain View, California, September 29, 2015

    Commentary

    With Driverless Cars, How Safe Is Safe Enough?

    Before driverless cars can be deployed, a fundamental question remains: How safe is safe enough? Waiting for autonomous vehicles to operate perfectly misses opportunities to save lives by keeping far-from-perfect human drivers behind the wheel.

    Feb 1, 2016

  • The Mercedes-Benz F015 Luxury in Motion autonomous concept car is shown on stage during the 2015 International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas, Nevada, January 5, 2015

    Commentary

    To Hit the Road, Driverless Cars Must Be Safe, Not Perfect

    Once driverless cars are safer than the average human driver, they should be allowed to hit the road. Indeed, waiting for autonomous vehicles to be perfect would be its own safety concern because it would mean the needless perpetuation of the risks posed by human drivers.

    Jan 29, 2015

  • The M3 Motorway cutting at Twyford Down

    Report

    Road traffic demand elasticities: A rapid evidence assessment

    This study presents findings of a rapid evidence assessment of literature to better understand the factors driving road transport demand for both passengers and freight.

    Jan 15, 2015

  • London traffic

    Report

    Evidence review of car traffic levels in Britain: A rapid evidence assessment

    This study presents findings of a rapid evidence assessment of literature to better understand the factors and trends influencing the recent levelling off in total miles driven in Britain.

    Jan 15, 2015

  • Self-driving vehicle on a cloud

    Essay

    The Dream Drive: Twists and Turns on the Road to Self-Driving Vehicles

    Autonomous vehicle technology is already here: Cars park themselves, alert drivers to impending dangers, and even apply the brakes in emergencies. But what will it take to unlock its potential for major societal benefits?

    Jan 14, 2015

  • Events @ RAND Audio Podcast

    Multimedia

    Self-Driving Vehicles

    At this October 2014 event at RAND, information scientist Nidhi Kalra discusses the social, environmental, and policy implications of driverless cars.

    Oct 28, 2014

  • Young woman texting in car

    Commentary

    What if Distracted Driving Was Safe?

    According to consumer research, the ability to consume media, write an email, or even sleep during transport is a key selling point for self-driving cars, which could be available in the near future. Autonomous vehicle technology could also produce a wide range of public benefits.

    Jul 1, 2014

  • car interior with a dashboard computer

    Commentary

    Sounding the Car Alarm on Hackers

    Security protections on vehicles have not kept pace with systems that control safety features, navigation capabilities, and wireless communication functions. Onboard computer networks will likely become much more attractive to hackers.

    Jun 30, 2014