Victoria A. Greenfield

Photo of Victoria Greenfield
Senior Economist
Washington Office


B.S. in agricultural economics, Cornell University; Ph.D. in agricultural and resource economics, UC Berkeley; M.S. in agricultural and resource economics, UC Berkeley


Victoria Greenfield (she/her) is a senior economist and served previously as the quality assurance manager for the Homeland Security Operational Analysis Center. Greenfield first joined RAND in 2000 and specializes in national security and international social and economic issues, including transnational crime. She also advises agencies on strategic planning, performance evaluation, and organizational change. Her recent publications explore means of assessing harms of crime, including drug and human trafficking, risks of illicit opioids in Asia-Pacific markets, revenues from human smuggling, options for controlling chemical explosive precursors, mechanisms for reducing Afghan opium poppy cultivation, and opportunities for strengthening federal agency operations. Greenfield has also written on defense contracting, the defense industrial base, and international trade and globalization.

Between 2015 and 2018, Greenfield was a visiting scholar in the Department of Criminology, Law and Society at George Mason University, served as the chair of the National Academies’ committee on reducing the threat of improvised explosive devices, and was a visiting fellow at Leuven Institute for Criminology. From 2005-2012, Greenfield held the Admiral Crowe Chair in the Economics of the Defense Industrial Base at the U.S. Naval Academy. She also served on the National Academies’ committee on estimating costs of increased border enforcement. Prior to 2000, she served as the senior economist for international trade and agriculture at the U.S. President’s Council of Economic Advisers, the chief international economist in the Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs at the U.S. Department of State, and a principal analyst with the Congressional Budget Office.

Recent Projects

  • Cybersecurity of the Air Force Industrial Supply Chain
  • Risks of Illicit Opioids in Asia-Pacific Markets
  • Performance Assessment Process Improvement for System Engineering Support
  • Definition of the Office of the Chief Data Officer
  • Economic Value of Human Smuggling to Transnational Criminal Organizations

Selected Publications

Victoria A. Greenfield and Letizia Paoli, Assessing the Harms of Crime: A New Framework for Criminal Policy, Oxford University Press, 2022

Greenfield, Victoria A., Blas Nunez-Neto, Ian Mitch, Joseph C. Chang, and Etienne Rosas, Human Smuggling and Associated Revenues: What Do or Can We Know About Routes from Central America to the United States?RAND Corporation (RR-2852-DHS), 2019

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Committee on Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Chemical Explosive Precursors, Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals, The National Academies Press, 2018

Victoria A. Greenfield, Craig A. Bond, Keith Crane, "A Household Model of Opium-Poppy Cultivation in Afghanistan: Results and Lessons for Policymaking," Journal of Policy Modeling, 39(5), 2017

Victoria A. Greenfield, Letizia Paoli, and Andries Zoutendijk, "The Harms of Human Trafficking: Demonstrating the Applicability and Value of a New Framework for Systematic, Empirical Analysis," Global Crime, 17(2), 2016

Victoria A. Greenfield and Letizia Paoli, "If supply-oriented drug policy is broken, can harm reduction help fix it? Melding disciplines and methods to advance international drug-control policy," International Journal of Drug Policy, 23, 2012

Ryan R. Brady and Victoria A. Greenfield, "Competing explanations of U.S. defense industry consolidation in the 1990s and their policy implications," Contemporary Economic Policy, 28(2), 2010

Letizia Paoli, Victoria A. Greenfield, and Peter Reuter, The World Supply of Heroin: Can Supply Be Cut?Oxford University Press, 2009

Honors & Awards

  • Silver Medal Award (2020), RAND