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Russia's relations with the West are in deep turmoil. While the competitive dynamic between Russia and the West has come to a head in Ukraine, all of the "in-between" states — Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan — are objects of a contest among outside powers. This contest has become a negative-sum game, benefiting none of the parties: The West and Russia now find themselves locked into a dangerous and damaging competition, while the states in the region remain to varying degrees unstable, unreformed, and rife with conflict. Both Russian and Western policy toward these states has seemingly reached a dead end. Continuing with the status quo will likely perpetuate instability, poor governance, and a long-term Cold War-like atmosphere in West-Russia relations. However, without a credible alternative to the status quo, both the West and Russia seem doomed to continue it. The RAND Corporation convened a working group composed of experts and former policy practitioners from the United States, the European Union, Russia and the in-between states to consider proposals to foster cooperation, reduce tensions, and increase stability. The papers collected here outline these findings and recommendations.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One


    Samuel Charap

  • Chapter Two

    Lessons Learned from Russia-West Interactions on European Security

    James Dobbins and Andrei Zagorski

  • Chapter Three

    Small Steps: How to Start Improving Security in Europe

    Reinhard J. Krumm

  • Chapter Four

    Thoughts on Inclusive Economic Integration

    Esther Ademmer and Yaroslav Lissovolik

  • Chapter Five

    Approaches to Resolving the Conflict over the States In Between

    Oleksandr Chalyi

  • Chapter Six

    Cooperative Transregionalism and the Problem of the "In Betweens"

    Yulia Nikitina

  • Chapter Seven

    Summary of Policy Recommendations

This project was conducted within the International Security and Defense Policy Center (ISDP) of the RAND National Security Research Division (NSRD).

This report is part of the RAND Corporation conference proceeding series. RAND conference proceedings present a collection of papers delivered at a conference or a summary of the conference.

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