Implementing an Adaptive Intelligent Tutoring System as an Instructional Supplement

Published in: Educational Technology Research and Development (2020). doi: 10.1007/s11423-020-09745-w

by Andrea Phillips, John F. Pane, Rebecca Reumann-Moore, Oluwatosin Shenbanjo

Read More

Access further information on this document at Springer Link

This article was published outside of RAND. The full text of the article can be found at the link above.

Evidence is emerging that technology-based curricula and adaptive learning systems can personalize students' learning experiences and facilitate development of mathematical skills. Yet, evidence of efficacy in rigorous studies for these blended instructional models is mixed. These studies highlight challenges implementing the systems in classrooms, which may contribute to a lack of consistently positive effects on student learning. This article extends the literature by closely examining implementation models and dosage levels for a supplemental software, two gaps in existing research. It also investigates adherence to the core components of the software, and extent to which the supplement enabled personalized instruction. The study was conducted in 40 algebra I classes in an urban school district. Sixty-two percent of classes implemented models that integrated instructional modalities. There was mixed adherence to core components of the software in classes that used it. In the vast majority of classes (94%), software did not enable personalized instruction. Software and the existing curricula were largely independent and did not inform each other. Only one class implemented an integrated instructional model, adhered to the core design components of the software, and demonstrated high levels of personalized instruction. Findings identify implementation barriers and offer suggestions for future implementations and studies of technology-enabled personalization.

Research conducted by

This report is part of the RAND Corporation External publication series. Many RAND studies are published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals, as chapters in commercial books, or as documents published by other organizations.

Our mission to help improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis is enabled through our core values of quality and objectivity and our unwavering commitment to the highest level of integrity and ethical behavior. To help ensure our research and analysis are rigorous, objective, and nonpartisan, we subject our research publications to a robust and exacting quality-assurance process; avoid both the appearance and reality of financial and other conflicts of interest through staff training, project screening, and a policy of mandatory disclosure; and pursue transparency in our research engagements through our commitment to the open publication of our research findings and recommendations, disclosure of the source of funding of published research, and policies to ensure intellectual independence. For more information, visit

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.