Jul 22, 2019
The EDA commissioned RAND Europe to examine the scope for collaboration between European states in light and medium multirole helicopters. We examined the current multirole helicopter demand and supply landscape, the current approach to life-cycle management, and potential preconditions, challenges and benefits. The study then identified potential collaboration models, spanning maintenance and upgrade, procurement, and research and development.
Multirole helicopters are versatile air transport platforms that may perform a variety of functions. This versatility makes them an important military asset not only in out-of-area missions as well as for domestic operations. However, low readiness levels have been observed in Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), NATO and UN operations as well as for national commitments.
This study was carried out to identify potential multinational collaboration opportunities amongst the EDA (European Defence Agency) participating member states (pMS) and countries with administrative arrangements (AA countries countries) with the EDA in the area of light and medium multirole helicopters. The aim of the study was to identify potential collaboration opportunities throughout the equipment life-cycle based on an analysis of the current capability landscape and analyse the possible related costs, benefits and challenges for each of the opportunity.
The study supports the EDA's mission to promote multinational collaboration among European countries while developing defence capabilities.
EDA pMS and countries that have administrative agreements with the EDA (aka EDA partner countries) together own approximately 20 per cent of the global multirole helicopter (MRH) fleet and are the single largest collective owner of MRH fleets. While some European countries have significant fleets of 200-500 helicopters, most European countries have comparatively smaller fleets of 66 or fewer.
The current MRH fleet landscape in Europe is highly fragmented, with thirty different types of platforms currently in use. Four MRH models are by far the most prevalent in European fleets: the US-made Bell 206 and Bell 212/412, the Airbus H215 Super Puma and the collaborative NHIndustries NH90.
Older aircraft face increasing challenges in terms of obsolescence, reliability, operational availability and effectiveness, and can be costly to maintain as they enter the latter stages of their life cycle. According to RAND Europe's analysis, some 33 per cent of the current MRH fleets included in the study were first introduced in the 1970s, 20 per cent in 1960s, 15 per cent in the 1990s, 13 per cent in the 1980s, and only 3 per cent in the 2010s.
Analysis of the current European MRH fleet landscape reveals a potentially promising base for future collaboration. Although European MRH fleets are currently highly fragmented and ageing, there is an ongoing trend towards rationalisation through a reduction of the number of platforms present in each member state. The overall age of MRH fleets is high, opening opportunities for cooperation in ongoing MRO as well as in fleet replacement, either through purchases of new off-the-shelf platforms (especially in light dual-use MRHs) or the development of a new medium military-specific MRH. Alongside interoperability, trust and operational drivers, the growing age of MRHs serves as an additional motivation for multinational collaboration, as maintenance costs may increase with time and countries are increasingly looking for opportunities to ensure more efficient and economical ways of maintaining their capabilities.
The return of a focus on defence and security in European policy in recent years, and the consequent interest in investing in military capabilities and increased defence budgets, may all lead to greater future activity in terms of the development of European MRH capabilities. Additional financial incentives may further encourage multinational collaboration through EU-level funding mechanisms, such as the European Defence Fund (EDF).
The current European industrial landscape exhibits several characteristics that may encourage future multinational collaboration in MRHs: (1) the current R&D and production landscape is already consolidated around two major manufacturers; (2) the Europe-based suppliers of components and sub-systems also overlap, with the same component manufacturers often delivering to both original equipment manufacturers (OEMs); (3) recent successful European exports to the US illustrate the global competitiveness of European MRH designs, which serves as an encouraging basis for further focus specifically on MRH.
According to the RAND Europe study team's observations, based on interviews and a workshop with the EDA pMS, the main preconditions for multinational collaboration are seen to be political will, operational need, and 'ways of collaboration' or the presence of multinational collaboration programmes.
According to pMS, interest in cooperation may be boosted by such motivational factors as:
The study identified and modelled four potential collaboration opportunities for European MRHs that could lead to cost savings and other benefits: