While the number of people living in extreme poverty, defined as persons living on less than $1.25 per day, has declined over the last decades, estimates of global poverty remain high in the 21st century. In order to lift people out of poverty, employment is crucial. The World Bank asked RAND Europe to conduct a stocktaking exercise to map the diversity of employment interventions in South Asia and to review evidence of the impact of interventions. The stocktaking exercise aimed to map the most prominent employment interventions in a number of countries suggested by the World Bank: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The second step involved an assessment of the impact of such interventions to understand if they are effective vehicles to increase employment. The evidence of the impact of interventions has been assessed through a meta-regression based on a scoping of academic literature.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One


  • Part One


    • Chapter Two

      Taking stock of interventions in South Asia

    • Chapter Three


    • Chapter Four


    • Chapter Five

      Sri Lanka

    • Chapter Six


    • Chapter Seven


    • Chapter Eight


  • Part Two


    • Chapter Nine

      Assessing the evidence of impact

    • Chapter Ten

      Dataset for the Meta Analysis

    • Chapter Eleven

      Empirical Methods

    • Chapter Twelve

      Results of the Meta-Regression

    • Chapter Thirteen


    • Chapter Fourteen


Research conducted by

The research described in this report was prepared for the World Bank and conducted by RAND Europe.

This report is part of the RAND Corporation Research report series. RAND reports present research findings and objective analysis that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors. All RAND reports undergo rigorous peer review to ensure high standards for research quality and objectivity.

This document and trademark(s) contained herein are protected by law. This representation of RAND intellectual property is provided for noncommercial use only. Unauthorized posting of this publication online is prohibited; linking directly to this product page is encouraged. Permission is required from RAND to reproduce, or reuse in another form, any of its research documents for commercial purposes. For information on reprint and reuse permissions, please visit www.rand.org/pubs/permissions.

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.