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The UK National Audit Office (NAO) commissioned RAND Europe to look at the evidence showing the effectiveness of reform of mathematics teaching in primary schools in England. This study looked at government-sponsored evaluations of mathematics reform in England, independent evaluations of the educational outcomes of mathematics reforms in England, and the international evidence regarding some of the main components of government policy aimed at improving educational outcomes. The study presents the results of the evaluations and the international literature and discusses the robustness of their findings.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter One


  • Chapter Two

    Reforms in primary mathematics education

  • Chapter Three

    Results from government-initiated evaluations

  • Chapter Four

    Results from independent evaluations

  • Chapter Five

    Some general observations on evaluation methods

  • Chapter Six

    Additional evidence regarding elements that are central to the reforms

  • Appendix A


Research conducted by

The research described in this report was prepared for the National Audit Office and was conducted by RAND Europe.

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