Building a Validity Argument for an Automated Writing Evaluation System (eRevise) as a Formative Assessment

Published in: Computers and Education Open (2022). doi: 10.1016/j.caeo.2022.100084

by Richard Correnti, Lindsay Clare Matsumura, Elaine Lin Wang, Diane Litman, Haoran Zhang

Read More

Access further information on this document at Elsevier Ltd

This article was published outside of RAND. The full text of the article can be found at the link above.

  • To be useful for formative assessment purposes, the information derived from an automated writing evaluation (AWE) system must capture meaningful features of a writing construct.
  • We present a validity argument for an AWE system—termed eRevise—that targets elementary students' text-based argumentative writing skills, specifically their ability to use text evidence.
  • We provide evidence that the feedback is understood by students and that their revisions are aligned with the automated feedback they received.
  • Teachers overall responded very positively to eRevise, with nearly all reporting that they would use eRevise again.
  • Improvement scores were higher when teachers reported substantive interactions with students about the students' interpretation of the automated feedback.

Research conducted by

This report is part of the RAND Corporation External publication series. Many RAND studies are published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals, as chapters in commercial books, or as documents published by other organizations.

Our mission to help improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis is enabled through our core values of quality and objectivity and our unwavering commitment to the highest level of integrity and ethical behavior. To help ensure our research and analysis are rigorous, objective, and nonpartisan, we subject our research publications to a robust and exacting quality-assurance process; avoid both the appearance and reality of financial and other conflicts of interest through staff training, project screening, and a policy of mandatory disclosure; and pursue transparency in our research engagements through our commitment to the open publication of our research findings and recommendations, disclosure of the source of funding of published research, and policies to ensure intellectual independence. For more information, visit

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors.