Military weapons exports and private military and security contractors (PMSCs) are important tools for projecting a country's influence around the world. Both China and Russia are among the top five countries that export major arms, and both countries have employed PMSCs across Africa. To map the spread of China's and Russia's influence in Africa, RAND researchers analyzed which African countries received weapons and PMSCs from China and Russia during 2018–2021. The result is this visualization, which shows that both countries have been exporting defense and security influence widely across the continent.
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Weinbaum, Cortney, Melissa Shostak, Chandler Sachs, and John V. Parachini, Mapping Chinese and Russian Military and Security Exports to Africa. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2022. https://www.rand.org/pubs/tools/TLA2045-3.html.
Weinbaum, Cortney, Melissa Shostak, Chandler Sachs, and John V. Parachini, Mapping Chinese and Russian Military and Security Exports to Africa, RAND Corporation, TL-A2045-3, 2022. As of February 1, 2023: https://www.rand.org/pubs/tools/TLA2045-3.html